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寻与伺

已有 208 次阅读2017-12-18 18:38 |个人分类:佛法探讨| ,

一位贤友推荐我看朱倍贤的《初禅中的“寻”与“伺”》,就在网上找到aggavara博客里转载的 http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_993e460b0102yeov.html 。
里面说到《藏论》(Peṭakopadesa)对寻伺的解释,是新信息:

接下来,谈到《藏论》(Peṭakopadesa)中对寻伺的解释: “Here, directed thought is the first instance while evaluation is the evaluation of what is thereby received. Just as when a man sees someone approaching in the distance he does not yet know whether it is a woman or a man, but when he has received [the apperception] that “it is a woman” or “it is a man” or that “it is of such color” or that “it is one of such shape,” then when he has thought this he further scrutinizes, “How then, is he ethical or unethical, rich or poor?” This is examination. With directed thought he fixes. With examination he moves about and turns over [what has been thought].

《藏论》是很早期的论典,在南传被归类到三藏,它跟其它早期的论典对「寻」跟「伺」都有做过解释,没有中文的翻译,以下是我根据英文所做的解释:

「寻」 跟「伺」就像眼睛看到一个人,接下来就开始评估:这是一个女人吗?这是一个男人吗?她(他)的肤色如何?身材如何?古代印度的男人跟现代的男人都一样,看 到女人第一个就是留意肤色、身材,马上做这样的评估。接下来有可能评估:这个人是有道德的吗?没有道德的吗?是贫穷还是富有?这就叫做「伺」。这里的 「伺」很明显有评估、分别的意思。

我把包含这段的巴利经文复制到这里来:

Vitakkāti tayo vitakkā – nekkhammavitakko abyāpādavitakko avihiṃsāvitakko. Tattha paṭhamābhinipāto vitakko, paṭiladdhassa vicaraṇaṃ vicāro. Yathā puriso dūrato purisaṃ passati āgacchantaṃ, na ca tāva jānāti eso itthīti vā purisoti vā yadā tu paṭilabhati itthīti vā purisoti vā evaṃ vaṇṇoti vā evaṃ saṇṭhānoti vā ime vitakkayanto uttari upaparikkhanti kiṃ nu kho ayaṃ sīlavā udāhu dussīlo aḍḍho vā duggatoti vā. Evaṃ vicāro vitakke appeti, vicāro cariyati ca anuvattati ca. Yathā pakkhī pubbaṃ āyūhati pacchā nāyūhati yathā āyūhanā evaṃ vitakko, yathā pakkhānaṃ pasāraṇaṃ evaṃ vicāro anupālati vitakketi vicarati vicāreti. Vitakkayati vitakketi, anuvicarati vicāreti. Kāmasaññāya paṭipakkho vitakko, byāpādasaññāya vihiṃsasaññāya ca paṭipakkho vicāro. Vitakkānaṃ kammaṃ akusalassa amanasikāro, vicārānaṃ kammaṃ jeṭṭhānaṃ saṃvāraṇā. Yathā paliko tuṇhiko sajjhāyaṃ karoti evaṃ vitakko, yathā taṃyeva anupassati evaṃ vicāro. Yathā apariññā evaṃ vitakko. Yathā pariññā evaṃ vicāro. Niruttipaṭisambhidāyañca paṭibhānapaṭisambhidāyañca vitakko, dhammapaṭisambhidāyañca atthapaṭisambhidāyañca vicāro. Kallitā kosallattaṃ cittassa vitakko, abhinīhārakosallaṃ cittassa vicāro. Idaṃ kusalaṃ idaṃ akusalaṃ idaṃ bhāvetabbaṃ idaṃ pahātabbaṃ idaṃ sacchikātabbanti vitakko, yathā pahānañca bhāvanā ca sacchikiriyā ca evaṃ vicāro. Imesu vitakkavicāresu ṭhitassa duvidhaṃ dukkhaṃ na uppajjati kāyikañca cetasikañca; duvidhaṃ sukhaṃ uppajjati kāyikañca cetasikañca. Iti vitakkajanitaṃ cetasikaṃ sukhaṃ pīti kāyikaṃ sukhaṃ kāyikoyeva. Yā tattha cittassa ekaggatā, ayaṃ samādhi. Iti paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ pañcaṅgavippahīnaṃ pañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ.


Tesaṃyeva vitakkavicārānaṃ abhikkhaṇaṃ āsevanāya tassa tappoṇamānasaṃ hoti. Tassa vitakkavicārā oḷārikā khāyanti. Yañca pītisukhañca nekkhammañca oḷārikaṃ bhavati. Api ca samādhijā pīti rati ca jāyati. Tassa vicārārammaṇaṃ. Tesaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ ceto sampasīdati. Ye vitakkavicārā dve dhammānussaritabbā. Paccuppannā daraṇitabbaṃ. Tesaṃ vūpasamā ekodibhāvaṃ cittekaggataṃ hoti. Tassa ekodibhāvena pīti pāripūriṃ gacchati. Yā pīti, taṃ somanassindriyaṃ, yaṃ sukhaṃ, taṃ sukhindriyaṃ. Yā cittekaggatā, ayaṃ samādhi. Taṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ caturaṅgasamannāgataṃ. So pītiyā virāgā yāti ojahi jallasahagataṃ.

我对寻伺的认识一般是:寻就是把心投入所缘,伺就是继续考察所缘。如果所缘是概念,就是念头,所缘是禅修目标,则可能是止禅或观禅。这一句Tattha paṭhamābhinipāto vitakko也和我这里对寻的认识是一致的( Abhinipāta,【阳】跌落,冲闯,攻击,敲击。那么,paṭhamābhinipāto 就是第一次冲撞目标。)


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