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正义与善巧

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发表于 2017-7-3 10:04:44 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Justice vs. Skillfulness 正义与善巧

Thanissaro Bhikkhu
July 31, 2016



When we develop the brahamaviharas:
当我们修习梵住时:
attitudes of goodwill, compassion, empathetic joy, equanimity.
梵住即是慈悲喜舍之心
we try to make them unlimited.
我们要把它们修习到无量无边
In other words, we develop goodwill for all beings, compassion for all,
换言之,对所有众生慈、悲
empathetic joy for all,
随喜所有众生之成就
and we have to learn how to apply thoughts of equanimity to all when necessary.
并且学习在必要的时候保持中立平等的态度
The problem is that although our attitudes may be unlimited,
问题是,虽然我们的心态可以无量无边
our resources for actually helping people and improving the world, those are limited.
但饶益别人、改善世界的资源,这些是有限的
This is why we need a clear set of priorities: what can we do, what we cannot do,
所以我们对事情的轻重缓急
要有明确的概念:什么可以做,什么不能做。
what things are worth doing,
什么事情值得去做
worth improving, what things are not.
值得去改进,什么事情不值得
because if you spread yourself too thin,
如果你手脚伸展的过宽广,什么都要做
you end up not accomplishing much at all.
最终就会一无所成
Or, if you focus on solving the wrong problems, you end up regretting it later.
如果你专注于解决错误的问题,
最终就会后悔
For example, sometimes we're told that the Buddha's main purpose in teaching was to put an end to all suffering.
例如,有时,别人告诉我们,
佛陀主要教我们离苦
and especially he did that by focusing one type of suffering: the suffering we cause ourselves,
他特别地强调我们自身造成的苦迫
through our own craving, through our own clinging, through our own ignorance.
这些苦是通过我们的贪爱、执着、无明产生的
As for the suffering that comes from the three characteristics,
但是对于因由三法印产生的苦迫
that's something that can't be stopped.
那是没办法中止的
Those characteristics are still going to keep on
三法印永远如此
manifesting themselves in the world, but the question is:
它一直是这样展示于世界之中,问题是:
Do you have to suffer from them, does your mind have to suffer from them?
你必须因之受苦吗,你的心必会因之受苦吗?
And the answer is No.
答案是否定的
So the emphasis is specifically on how the way you engage with the world
所以重点是你与世界共处的方式
that's causing suffering through your engagement,  through clinging and craving and ignorance.
如果你与世界共处的方式是
执着、贪婪、无明,这就会造成苦迫
So that's what we work on as we meditate.
这些都是我们通过禅修来怼治的
As for helping other people,
that's a matter of generosity.
饶益他人,这就是布施
The Buddha set out duties only in terms of the four noble truths.
佛陀以四圣谛为基础要求我们如何做
As for the issue of helping other people, he didn't place a duty on anyone.
但是在饶益他人这件事上,
他没有对任何人作要求
He pointed out that certain things are skillful and certain things are unskillful in your engagement with other people,
他只是说,在与他人相处时,
有些行为是善巧的,有些不是善巧的
And it's important to note that difference.
此两者的区别,十分重要
Then the question that the Buddha says lies at beginning of wisdom of discernment: What when I do it will lead to my long-term welfare and happiness,
所以拣择之智的开端在于:做什么事
才能导致我的长久幸福
what is skillful, what is blameless?
什么是善巧、无害的?
That's the question on the positive side. Then on the negative side:
这是从正面来看,从反面看:
What when I do it will lead to my long-term harm and suffering,
什么会给我造成长远的伤害和苦迫,
what is unskillful, what is blameworthy?
什么是不善巧、有害的?
Notice the terms:
注意用词:
There's never a question of what is justice.
什么是正义,这从来不是个问题
The question is, what is skillful.
问题是,什么是善巧
Because you look at the world around you, you see a lot of injustices.
当我们举目四顾,会见到许多不正义之事
You see a lot of mistreatment of people.
你会看到很多人受到虐待
But we're going to deal with it how primarily as an injustice or something as unskillful.
我们对这些问题的态度,
把它从根本上看成不正义的,还是不善巧的
Because our idea of justice is based on the idea that there's a beginning point to a story.
正义这个概念,基于一个事件的起点
and then you figure out who did what first, and then who did what second, and then
你要知道谁最先做了什么,第二人怎么做,
at the end of the story you figure out how things should be apportioned in terms of guilt or lack of guilt,
事情结束后,你再判断谁有罪,谁无辜
But in the Buddha's teaching, there's no beginning.
但是在佛陀的教导里,并没有一个起点
As he said, you could trace back, back and back and back, he said, it was inconceivable beginning.
如同佛陀所言,你可以一直回溯,
但是起点是不可思议的
And we've been through so many times, through so many universes,
无始劫以来,我们经历过许多世界
that, as he said, it's hard to meet someone who hasn't been your mother or your father or your brother or your sister or your son or your daughter in all that time. The stories are very long.
所以,每个众生都曾为你的父母、
兄弟姐妹、子女,这是一个很漫长的故事
So if you're going to start apportioning blame, where do you start?
所以,你如果要责怪某人,你从何开始?
There's a famous story of Somdet Toh.
这里有一个关于阿姜多的有名故事
A young monk once came to him to complain that another monk had hit him, and Somdet Toh said, “Well, you hit him first.”
一个年轻比丘抱怨另外一个比丘打了他,
阿姜多说:“是你先动手的。”
The monk replied, “No, no, he just came up and hit me over the head and I hadn't done anything at all.” Somdet Toh said, “No, you hit him first.”
那个比丘说:“不,他打我的头,我没打他。”
阿姜多说:“你错了,你先打了他。”
Back and forth like this for a while and then the young monk got upset and went to see another senior monk to complain about Somdet Toh.
如此这般几次之后,这个年轻比丘很沮丧
到另外一个长老面前抱怨阿姜多
So the other senior monk came and asked Somdet Toh what was up, and Somdet Toh said, “Well obviously it's his karma from some previous lifetime.
那个长老就去问阿姜多,阿姜多说:
“很明显我指的是前世的业。
He had hit the other monk first at some point in time.”
他在过去世的某个时间先打了别人。“
And of course that might have been after the other monk had hit the first monk first—so it goes back and forth, back and forth like this.
当然,另一个比丘在更早之前也打过他,
这样循环往复,没完没了
So when you see mistreatment
around you, the first question isn't “Is this just or unjust?”
所以,当你看到身边暴虐的事情,
要问的不是:这是不是正义的?
The question is, is that person behaving in a skillful way or unskillful way,
问题是,那个人的行为是不是很善巧
and what can I do behaving skillfully to put a stop to unskillful behavior?
我能通过怎样的善巧来终止不善巧的行为
Now there's some unskillful behavior you can stop and other such you can't.
我们可以终止一些不善巧的行为,
但是有些并不能终止
But that's the basic question: When is it skillful to interfere, when is it skillful to get involved,
基本的问题是:什么时候干预才善巧,
什么时候牵涉其中才善巧
Sometimes the answer is clear and sometimes it's not.
有时候答案很明确,有时候又并非如此
If you have the energy and the wherewithal and it's not too dangerous,
如果你有能力、金钱,可能没什么危险
you try to help.
你尽力去帮忙。
Then, if you see that it's not working, you pull back.
如果你发现不奏效,你就要撤退。
But a lot of this also has to do with your priorities.
所以大多数时候取决于你的轻重缓急
There are some unskillful things happening in the world
这个世界上有一些不善巧的事情在发生
that really are worth banding together with other people, getting your energies together,
值得大家同心协力
and seeing if you can put a stop to it.
看看是否能够终止它。
But you have to do it in a skillful way.
但是你需要用善巧的方法去解决
There's never a case in the Dhamma where good ends justify unskillful means. The means have to be good—in fact it's all means.
从佛法角度,目标并不能保证手段的正当。
手段也必须是善的,实际上,一切都只是手段。
where would you put the ends?
你将目标置于何处?
You settle one issue and there's another issue. You settle that issue, then everyone dies, they get reborn, and things start up again.
你解决一个问题,又来了另一个问题
这个问题解决了,所有人都死了
重新投生之后,问题又都来了。
The only real closure in the Buddha's teachings is nibbāna,
从佛教而言,真正的止息就是涅槃
and that's a closure that each of us has to find within ourselves.
我们要从自己的内心寻求这个止息
We're not going to find closure out in the world,
在外部世界,我们不可能找到这个止息
because the world just keeps on going again, again and again.
世界永远绵亘
Even at the beginning of the universe, there's not just one beginning. The Buddha has several ways of describing
对于宇宙的起点,也并不是一个。
佛陀做了多种描述
how the universe evolves,
来介绍宇宙的演进
and began to realize there's no one person behind the evolution, no one plan behind the evolution.
然后明白在宇宙的演化里
不是一个主体,或者一个计划
There are just lots of individuals with lots of plans,
只是许许多多的个体,许许多多的计划
and they're driven mainly by craving and ignorance.
他们主要被贪婪和无明所驱使
And that's what keeps it going.
这就是演化的动力
As long as you're trying to straighten things out outside, dealing with craving and ignorance.
当你试图从外部来解决问题,
处理贪婪和无明。
Sometimes it's other people's craving and ignorance, sometimes it's yours. So you have to be very careful around this issue.
有时候是别人的贪婪和无明
有时候是你自己的,所以对此你要很小心
So this is why we work on the mind, because only in the mind can closure come.
所以这就是要在心地上下功夫的原因
因为只有在心里才有真正的止息
Remember, the main question is not question of justice or injustice, it's skillful or unskillful.
记住,主要问题不是正义问题,是善巧问题
The Buddha never tries to justify,
佛陀从未用“正义”来解决问题
say, oppression by saying that the oppressed people deserved it.
例如,说那些受压迫的人是应该如此
The word “deserve” also doesn't appear in the Buddha's teachings,
“应该如此”从未出现在佛陀的教导里
There are simply skillful actions with good results and unskillful actions with bad results,
善巧的行为会产生好结果,
不善巧的行为就产生坏结果。
and we all have a big mix of both.
这两种行为,我们都有
So when you see somebody suffering,
you don't know which part of their mix is showing,
所以当你看到别人受苦,
你不知道是哪种行为产生果报
and how much good stuff, say,is not showing.
还有什么好的结果没有显现出来
that gives the potential for you to help them.
这样你就能去帮助他们。
In other cases, it's clear that you can't help, like the squirrel I saw yesterday.
在另外一些情况下,很明显你就爱莫能助,
就像我昨天看到的松鼠
Something was obviously wrong with one of its legs—or maybe two of its legs—
它的脚很明显有问题,可能两只脚都有问题
but the closer I got to it to see what was wrong, the more it tried to struggle and struggle to get away.
当我靠近的时候,它就竭力挣扎要逃走
I realized that my concern was causing it a lot of suffering.
我意识到我的关心造成了更多的痛苦
That's the kind of situation where you can't help.
在这种情况下,你就爱莫能助
But other situations are not quite so easy to see.
但是这两种情形并不是那么容易分辨
Remember the categories. It's not about just or unjust. It's about skillful or unskillful.
记住这些范畴:不是关于正义,是关于善巧
When there's unskillful behavior outside, at the very least you don't condone it.
当外在的不善巧行为出现,
至少你不会宽容它
You don't encourage people to engage in that behavior.
你不会鼓励人们去做那样的行为
And if you can think up some skillful way to stop it, you try.
如果你能用善巧的方法终止他,那去试试
But your primary responsibility is what you're responsible for, i.e., your own choices,
但是你根本的责任是你的选择
what you do and what you choose to tell other people to do.
你怎么做,你告诉别人怎么做
Make sure that those are skillful.
确保这些是善巧的
If everybody looked after this one issue, the world would settle down.
如果每一个人都只关注这个问题
世界就会安定下来
Our problem is we're trying to straighten everybody else out without straightening ourselves out first.
我们的问题是我们总是想修正别人
而不是去修正自己
This is why we develop equanimity
所以我们要修习“舍”
because there are cases where, we can't help.
因为在有些情况下,我们爱莫能助
As for the unclear cases where you might be able to help, might not be able to help.
有些情况不清晰:你有可能帮助,
有可能不能帮助。
you have to keep your priorities straight.
必须有个明确的轻重缓急
What are the most important things for you to do?
什么事情对你而言最重要?
Where do you want to focus your energies to make a difference in the world?
怎样集中精力改善世界?
In other words, where do you want to choose to be generous?
换言之,选择在什么地方布施?
As the Buddha said with generosity, there are no shoulds.
就像佛陀所言,对于布施,没有什么是必须的
He simply recommended that you give where you feel inspired, where you feel the gift would be well-used.
佛陀只是建议你布施在有意义的地方,
布施在能发挥最大作用的地方。
That applies not only to material gifts but also to gifts of your time,
这不仅适用于物质上的布施,
也适用于时间的布施
gifts of your energy to improve things in the world.
布施你的精力,改善这个世界的事情
It's up to you to decide where you want to make your mark,
这取决于你决定在什么方面取得成功
who you want to help,
你想帮助谁
realizing that once you've chosen that, there are other things you're going to have to put aside.
要明白,一旦你做出决定,
其他事情就要放在一边
If your energies get too scattered,
如果你的精力过于分散
the Thai phrase is that you take a container of pepper sauce and pour it into the sea.
用泰国的谚语说就是:一瓶辣酱倒进大海
There' s so much water in the sea that the pepper sauce makes no difference at all.
大海的水很多,辣酱根本不能起作用
So this is why we have to practice equanimity.
所以我们要修习“舍”心。
We have goodwill for all but we have to realize that we can be helpful only in certain circumstances
我们对所有众生都有慈心,但要明白
我们只能在有限的情况下帮助别人
and you have to be very careful about when it's skillful and when it's not.
我们得十分小心:
什么时候是善巧的,什么时候不善巧
Make sure that those are the terms of your analysis.
这些就是你要分析的名相
Once you keep that point straight in your mind,
当你明白了这点
then it clears up a lot of other difficulties.
其他许多问题就迎刃而解
Now, our society doesn't think in these ways.
而如今,我们的社会并不是如此思维的
Most people think in the terms of a story with a beginning and an end,
大多数人觉得事件都有起点和终点
where it's clear to them who's right and who's wrong.
他们觉得:谁对谁错很清楚
We argue over that—
我们因此争执
everybody seems to have the idea that there's a beginning point and an end point and a plan to all this.
大家觉得有开始,有结束,有一个计划
and that there's somebody up there who's got an idea about a just way to arrange things,
所以,有些人觉得处理事情有公正的方法
and gives us duties.
给我们分配各种职责
But that's not in the Buddha's universe at all.
但是佛陀的宇宙观并非如此
There's no clear end, no clear beginning, and there's no one in charge.
没有清晰的终点或起点,也没有一个主宰
As that passage goes on to say, the world is swept away.
如同佛经所说,世界终究会坏灭
You should make sure you don't get swept away with it.
你要想不随着世界毁灭
Try to be clear about what you're doing, clear about doing it skillfully.
尽量清楚你在干什么,要善巧地去做
That's how you get out, this is what the practice is all about getting out.
这就是你解脱的方法,也是修行的目的。
We try to leave some good things behind as we get out—
当我们解脱的时候,想留下一些美好的东西
in fact you can't get out without leaving some good things behind—
实际上,不留下一些美好的东西,你也解脱不了
but sometimes the best gift you can give to other people is simply to show them there is a way out that they can follow, too.
但是有时候最好的布施,就是向别人
展示解脱的方法,他们也可以效仿
Try to keep that way open as much as you can through being skillful in your thoughts and your words and your deeds.
通过你的身语意,将这种方法公诸于众
Look at the Buddha: He gave the greatest gift of all. He gave us the Dhamma,
佛陀作了最伟大的布施:法布施
showed us the path, and then he left.
开示出道路,然后离开
Now it's up to us
现在轮到我们了
to give that gift to ourselves and to the people around us as best we can.
尽力将那份赠礼布施给自己,布施给我们周围的人。

(Bodhi Wood 字幕组
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.)
人需要明辨,才会去做 自己虽不爱做 但却能结出善果的业,才不会去做 自己虽爱做 但却会 结出恶果的业。

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