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去除现在的因

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发表于 2017-12-21 16:46:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 metta 于 2017-12-21 16:49 编辑

Removing the Present Causes

去除现在因



Every wholesome or unwholesome act means the conjunction of these five present causes, which may happen many thousands of times in a single lifetime. Under favourable circumstances these causes may lead to rebirth afer death, or to two or three rebirths in succession. Every existence is accompanied by aging, grief, and death, so to avoid this suffering, we should remove the causes. Thus we should note all phenomena the moment they occur. With the development of concentration, we will notice their instant passing away and so realise their impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and unreliability. This realisation helps us to overcome the ignorance and illusion that fuel craving, attachment, and karmic effort. Thus we render the five present causes inactive, forestalling rebirth and consequent suffering.

每一个善行或不善行意味着这五个现在因的联合,在一生中这可能成千上万次地发生。在有力的条件下,这些因也许会导向死后再生,或者两三次相续的再生。每次出生都伴随着老、忧和死,因此,为了避免这种苦,我们应该去除这些因。所以我们应该在所有现象发生的当下即刻观照它们。随着定力的发展,我们将观察到它们瞬间的灭去,从而体验到它们的无常、苦、无我。这种证悟有助于我们克服会刺激贪爱、取和业果增长的无明和愚痴,这样我们使这五个现在因不再活跃,预先阻止了再生和与之相关的苦。


This is called ‘tadaṅgapahāna,’ ‘partial, or momentary abandoning of defilements.’ By this method, one attains ‘tadaṅga-nibbuti,’ ‘partial or momentary extinction of defilements.’ Later, insight on the Noble Path arises, which means the extinction of all mental formations and the realisation of nibbāna, which is extinction through cutting off. The defilements and kammas are then eradicated. Stream-winners overcome the defilements and kammas that lead to the lower realms, and those that may cause not more than seven rebirths. Once-returners overcome defilements that may cause more than one rebirth, while Non-returners remove those that lead to rebirths in sensual realms. Finally, the Arahant eradicates the remaining defilements and kamma and becomes a Noble One who is worthy of honour because he is wholly free from defilements.


这称之为“彼分断”( tadaṅgapahāna)、“暂时地断除烦恼”。通过这个方法,禅修者获得“彼分涅槃”(tadaṅga-nibbuti)、“部分地或暂时地熄灭烦恼”。之后,圣道生起,那意味着诸行的止息和对涅槃的证悟,即正断舍断(samucchedapahāna),烦恼和业连根拔除了。初果圣者克服了导向恶道的烦恼和业,再生至多不超过七次。二果(一来)圣者克服的烦恼使得他们再生不超过一次。三果(不返)圣者去除了那些导致再生到欲界的烦恼。最后,阿罗汉圣者完全根除了所有余下的烦恼和业而成为一位值得礼敬的圣者,因为他已经完全地脱离了烦恼。

--马哈希尊者《缘起法讲记》宋润泉译



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