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他心智的所缘

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发表于 2018-2-16 15:34:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 metta 于 2018-2-16 15:34 编辑

(三)他心智的所缘 (清净道论 第十三章)

他心智是依于小、大、无量、道、过去、未来、现在、外的所缘等的八所缘而进行[173]37的。怎样(进行)呢?(1)知道在欲界的他人的心的时候,是它的“小所缘”。(2)知道色界无色界的心的时候,是它的“大所缘”。(3)知道果时为“无量所缘”。然而这里,凡夫是不知须陀洹的心的,须陀洹亦不知斯陀含之心,乃至(阿那含)不知阿罗汉之心,可是阿罗汉则知一切的心。即证得较高的人可以知道较低的人的心,应该了解这一个特点。(4)以道心为所缘时,是“道所缘”。(5)知道过去七日间及(6)未来七日间的他人的心时,是“过去所缘”及“未来所缘”。

(7)什么是他心智的“现在所缘”?现在有三种:剎那现在,相续现在,一期现在。关于这些的(一)得至生,住,灭(的三心剎那)的是“剎那现在”。(二)包摄一或二相续时间的是“相续现在”。即如一个曾在黑暗中坐的人,去到光明之处,他不会即刻明了所缘的,到了明了所缘的中间,当知是一或二相续的时间。一个在光明的地方出行的人,初入内室,也不会迅速明了于色的,到了明了于色的中间,当知是一或二相续的时间。如站在远处的人,看见浣衣者的手(以棍打衣)的一上一下及见敲钟击鼓的动作,也不会即刻闻其声,等到听到那声音的中间,当知亦为一或二相续的时间。这是《中部》诵者的说法。然而《相应部》诵者则说色相续及非色相续为二相续,如涉水而去者,那水上所起的波纹趋向岸边不即静止;从旅行回来的人,他的身上的热不即消退;从日光底下而来入室的人,不即离去黑暗;在室内忆念业处(定境)的人,于日间开窗而望,不即停止他的目眩;这便是色相续。二或三速行的时间为非色相续。他们说这两种为相续现在。(三)限于一生的期间为“一期现在”。关于此意,曾在《贤善一夜经》[174]38中说:“诸君!意与法二种为现在。于此现在,而识为欲贪结缚,因为欲贪结缚之故,而识喜于现在。因欢喜于彼,故被吸引于现在诸法”。这三现在中,相续现在,于义疏中说;一期现在,于经中说。

也有人(指无畏山的住者)说,这里面的剎那现在心是他心智的所缘。什么道理呢?因为神变者与其它的人是在同一剎那中生起那心的。这是他们的譬喻:譬如一手握的花掷上虚空,则花与花梗与梗必然相碰,当他忆念许多群众的心说“我要知他人的心”的时候,则必定会在生的剎那或住的剎那或灭的剎那由(他自己的)一心而知另一人的心。然而这种主张是义疏所破斥的:“纵使有人忆念百年千年,而那念的心和知的心两者也不会同时的,因为转向(念的心)和速行(知的心)的处所及所缘的状态都是不同的,有了这些过失,所以他们的主张不妥”。

当知应以相续现在及一期现在为他心智的所缘。此中自那现存的速行的经过(路)或前或后的二三速行的经过(路)的时间是他人的心,那一切名相续现在,《相应部》的义疏说:“一期现在只依速行时说”这是善说。那里的说明如下:“神变者欲知他人的心而忆念,以那转向的剎那现在心为所缘之后,并且同灭了。自此起了四或五的速行心。这最后的速行是神变心,其它的三或四的速行是欲界心。那一切(的速行心),都是以那灭了的(转向)心为所缘,没有各别的所缘,是依一期为现在所缘之故。虽然于同一所缘,但只有神变心而知他人的心,不是别的心(转向心及欲界的速行心等),正如于眼门,只有眼识而见色,并非其它”。如是这他心智是以相续现在及一期现在的现在为所缘。或者因为相续现在亦摄入于一期现在中,所以只依一期现在的现在为那他心智的所缘。(8)以他人的心为所缘,所以是它的“外所缘”。如是当知他心智的进行是依于八所缘的。
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-2-16 15:34:06 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 metta 于 2018-2-16 15:35 编辑

(3) Knowledge of penetration of minds occurs with respect to eight kinds of object, that is to say, as having a limited, exalted or measureless object, path as object, and a past, future or present object, and an external object. How? At the time of knowing others’ sense-sphere consciousness it has a limited object. At the time of knowing their fine-material-sphere or immaterial-sphere consciousness it has an exalted object. At the time of knowing path and fruition it has a measureless object. And here an ordinary man does not know a streamenterer’s consciousness, nor does a stream-enterer know a once-returner’s, and so up to the Arahant’s consciousness. But an Arahant knows the consciousness of all the others. And each higher one knows the consciousnesses of all those below him. This is the difference to be understood. At the time when it has path consciousness as its object it has path as object. But when one knows another’s consciousness within the past seven days, or within the future seven days, then it has a past object and has a future object respectively.
111. How does it have a present object? “Present” (paccuppanna) is of three
kinds, that is to say, present by moment, present by continuity, and present by extent. Herein, what has reached arising (uppáda), presence (þhiti), and dissolution (bhaòga) is present by moment. What is included in one or two rounds of continuity is present by continuity.
112. Herein, when someone goes to a well-lit place after sitting in the dark, an object is not clear at first; until it becomes clear, one or two rounds of continuity should be understood [to pass] meanwhile. And when he goes into an inner closet after going about in a well-lit place, a visible object is not immediately evident at first; until it becomes clear, one or two rounds of continuity should be understood [to pass] meanwhile. When he stands at a distance, although he sees the alterations (movements) of the hands of washer-men and the alterations (movements) of the striking of gongs, drums, etc., yet he does not hear the sound at first (see Ch. XIV n. 22); until he hears it, one or two rounds of continuity should be understood [to pass] meanwhile. This, firstly, is according to the Majjhima reciters.
113. The Saíyutta reciters, however, say that there are two kinds of continuity, that is to say, material continuity and immaterial continuity: that a material continuity lasts as long as the [muddy] line of water touching the bank when one treads in the water takes to clear,24 as long as the heat of the body in one who has walked a certain extent takes to die down, as long as the blindness in one who has come from the sunshine into a room does not depart, as long as when, after someone has been giving attention to his meditation subject in a room and then opens the shutters by day and looks out, the dazzling in his eyes does not die down; and that an immaterial continuity consists in two or three rounds of impulsions. Both of these are [according to them] called “present by continuity.”
[432]
114. What is delimited by a single becoming (existence) is called present by extent, with reference to which it is said in the Bhaddekaratta Sutta: “Friends, the mind and mental objects are both what is present. Consciousness is bound by desire and greed for what is present. Because consciousness is bound by desire and greed he delights in that. When he delights in that, then he is vanquished with respect to present states” (M III 197). And here, “present by continuity” is used in the Commentaries while “present by extent” is used in the Suttas.
115. Herein, some25 say that consciousness “present by moment” is the object of knowledge of penetration of minds. What reason do they give? It is that the consciousness of the possessor of supernormal power and that of the other arise in a single moment. Their simile is this: just as when a handful of flowers is thrown into the air, the stalk of one flower is probably struck by the stalk of another, and so too, when with the thought, “I will know another’s mind,” the mind of a multitude is adverted to as a mass, then the mind of one is probably penetrated by the mind of the other either at the moment of arising or at the moment of presence or at the moment of dissolution.
116. That, however, is rejected in the Commentaries as erroneous, because even if one went on adverting for a hundred or a thousand years, there is never copresence of the two consciousnesses, that is to say, of that with which he adverts and that [of impulsion] with which he knows, and because the flaw of plurality of objects follows if presence [of the same object] to both adverting and impulsion is not insisted on. What should be understood is that the object is present by continuity and present by extent.
117. Herein, another’s consciousness during a time measuring two or three cognitive series with impulsions extending before and after the [strictly] currently existing cognitive series with impulsions, is all called “present by continuity.” But in the Saṃyutta Commentary it is said that “present by extent” should be illustrated by a round of impulsions.
118. That is rightly said. Here is the illustration. The possessor of supernormalpower who wants to know another’s mind adverts. The adverting [consciousness] makes [the other’s consciousness that is] present by moment its object and ceases together with it. After that there are four or five impulsions, of which the last is the supernormal-power consciousness, the rest being of the sense sphere. That same [other’s] consciousness, which has ceased, is the object of all these too, and so they do not have different objects because they have an object that is “present by extent.” And while they have a single object it is only the supernormal-power consciousness that actually knows another’s consciousness, not the others, just as in the eye-door it is only eye-consciousness that actually sees the visible datum, not the others.
119. So this has a present object in what is present by continuity and what is present by extent. [433] Or since what is present by continuity falls within what is present by extent, it can therefore be understood that it has a present object simply in what is present by extent. It has an external object because it has only another’s mind as its object.
This is how knowledge of penetration of minds should be understood to occur with respect to the eight kinds of objects.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-2-16 15:34:07 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 metta 于 2018-2-16 15:38 编辑

416. Cetopariyañāṇaṃ parittamahaggataappamāṇamaggaatītānāgatapaccuppannabahiddhārammaṇavasena aṭṭhasu ārammaṇesu pavattati. Kathaṃ? Tañhi paresaṃ kāmāvacaracittajānanakāle parittārammaṇaṃ hoti. Rūpāvacaraarūpāvacaracittajānanakāle mahaggatārammaṇaṃ hoti. Maggaphalajānanakāle appamāṇārammaṇaṃ hoti.

Ettha ca puthujjano sotāpannassa cittaṃ na jānāti. Sotāpanno vā sakadāgāmissāti evaṃ yāva arahato netabbaṃ. Arahā pana sabbesaṃ cittaṃ jānāti. Aññopi ca uparimo heṭṭhimassāti ayaṃ viseso veditabbo. Maggacittārammaṇakāle maggārammaṇaṃ hoti. Yadā pana atīte sattadivasabbhantare ca anāgate sattadivasabbhantare ca paresaṃ cittaṃ jānāti, tadā atītārammaṇaṃ anāgatārammaṇañca hoti.

Kathaṃ paccuppannārammaṇaṃ hoti. Paccuppannaṃ nāma tividhaṃ – khaṇapaccuppannaṃ, santatipaccuppannaṃ, addhāpaccuppannañca. Tattha uppādaṭṭhitibhaṅgappattaṃ khaṇapaccuppannaṃ. Ekadvesantativārapariyāpannaṃ santatipaccuppannaṃ. Tattha andhakāre nisīditvā ālokaṭṭhānaṃ gatassa na tāva ārammaṇaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti, yāva pana taṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti, etthantare ekadvesantativārā veditabbā. Ālokaṭṭhāne vicaritvā ovarakaṃ paviṭṭhassāpi na tāva sahasā rūpaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti, yāva pana taṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti, etthantare ekadvesantativārā veditabbā. Dūre ṭhatvā pana rajakānaṃ hatthavikāraṃ, ghaṇḍibherīākoṭanavikārañca disvāpi na tāva saddaṃ suṇāti, yāva pana taṃ suṇāti, etasmimpi antare ekadvesantativārā veditabbā. Evaṃ tāva majjhimabhāṇakā.

Saṃyuttabhāṇakā pana rūpasantati arūpasantatīti dve santatiyo vatvā udakaṃ akkamitvā gatassa yāva tīre akkantaudakalekhā na vippasīdati, addhānato āgatassa yāva kāye usumabhāvo na vūpasammati, ātapā āgantvā gabbhaṃ paviṭṭhassa yāva andhakārabhāvo na vigacchati, antogabbhe kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasi karitvā divā vātapānaṃ vivaritvā olokentassa yāva akkhīnaṃ phandanabhāvo na vūpasammati, ayaṃ rūpasantati nāma. Dve tayo javanavārā arūpasantati nāmāti vatvā tadubhayampi santatipaccuppannaṃ nāmāti vadanti.

Ekabhavaparicchinnaṃ pana addhāpaccuppannaṃ nāma. Yaṃ sandhāya bhaddekarattasutte ‘‘ yo cāvuso, mano ye ca dhammā ubhayametaṃ paccuppannaṃ, tasmiṃ ce paccuppanne chandarāgappaṭibaddhaṃ hoti viññāṇaṃ, chandarāgappaṭibaddhattā viññāṇassa tadabhinandati, tadabhinandanto paccuppannesu dhammesu saṃhīratī ’’ ti (ma. ni. 3.284) vuttaṃ. Santatipaccuppannañcettha aṭṭhakathāsu āgataṃ. Addhāpaccuppannaṃ sutte.

Tattha keci khaṇapaccuppannaṃ cittaṃ cetopariyañāṇassa ārammaṇaṃ hotīti vadanti. Kiṃ kāraṇā? Yasmā iddhimato ca parassa ca ekakkhaṇe cittaṃ uppajjatīti. Idañca nesaṃ opammaṃ, yathā ākāse khitte pupphamuṭṭhimhi avassaṃ ekaṃ pupphaṃ ekassa vaṇṭena vaṇṭaṃ paṭivijjhati, evaṃ parassa cittaṃ jānissāmīti rāsivasena mahājanassa citte āvajjite avassaṃ ekassa cittaṃ ekena cittena uppādakkhaṇe vā ṭhitikkhaṇe vā bhaṅgakkhaṇe vā paṭivijjhatīti. Taṃ pana vassasatampi vassasahassampi āvajjanto yena ca cittena āvajjati, yena ca jānāti. Tesaṃ dvinnaṃ sahaṭhānābhāvato āvajjanajavanānañca aniṭṭhaṭṭhāne nānārammaṇabhāvappattidosato ayuttanti aṭṭhakathāsu paṭikkhittaṃ.

Santatipaccuppannaṃ pana addhāpaccuppannañca ārammaṇaṃ hotīti veditabbaṃ. Tattha yaṃ vattamānajavanavīthito atītānāgatavasena dvittijavanavīthiparimāṇe kāle parassa cittaṃ, taṃ sabbampi santatipaccuppannaṃ nāma. ‘ Addhāpaccuppannaṃ pana javanavārena dīpetabba ’’ nti saṃyuttaṭṭhakathāyaṃ vuttaṃ. Taṃ suṭṭhu vuttaṃ.

Tatrāyaṃ dīpanā, iddhimā parassa cittaṃ jānitukāmo āvajjati, āvajjanaṃ khaṇapaccuppannaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā teneva saha nirujjhati. Tato cattāri pañca vā javanāni. Yesaṃ pacchimaṃ iddhicittaṃ, sesāni kāmāvacarāni, tesaṃ sabbesampi tadeva niruddhaṃ cittamārammaṇaṃ hoti, na ca tāni nānārammaṇāni honti, addhāvasena paccuppannārammaṇattā. Ekārammaṇattepi ca iddhicittameva parassa cittaṃ jānāti, na itarāni. Yathā cakkhudvāre cakkhuviññāṇameva rūpaṃ passati, na itarānīti. Iti idaṃ santatipaccuppannassa ceva addhāpaccuppannassa ca vasena paccuppannārammaṇaṃ hoti. Yasmā vā santatipaccuppannampi addhāpaccuppanneyeva patati, tasmā addhāpaccuppannavasenevetaṃ paccuppannārammaṇanti veditabbaṃ. Parassa cittārammaṇattāyeva pana bahiddhārammaṇaṃ hotīti evaṃ cetopariyañāṇassa aṭṭhasu ārammaṇesu pavatti veditabbā.
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发表于 2018-2-16 19:28:28 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 summer530 于 2018-2-16 21:52 编辑

Cetopariyañāṇaṃ:
Knowledge of the nature of the heart or thoughts of others [google 翻译:了解心的本质或他人的想法]

然而这里,凡夫是不知须陀洹的心的,须陀洹亦不知斯陀含之心,乃至(阿那含)不知阿罗汉之心,可是阿罗汉则知一切的心。即证得较高的人可以知道较低的人的心,应该了解这一个特点。


他心智,不能超越未曾有。可是绝对!颇值得我们如实正观,戒、慎、虔、诚
当今学佛子的知见是否仍维持施设当际之纯真   颇值得玩味与探究

当知应以相续现在一期现在为他心智的所缘
What should be understood is that the object is present by continuity and present by extent.

译文可有别异! 颇值得玩味
个人如是解读:应当理解的是,其所缘是具相续性的存在[目前]程度的存在
现在!“现”在! 当今,些许有别

‘过去七日间’、‘未来七日间’ ,缘何而七日有!  呵呵
对于这段文句[清净道论 第十三章],如若观智未发、他心智不具者,展转、附会或许多于其他  颇值得我们戒、慎、虔、诚
如实观照,行住坐卧,语默动静,智慧为导,实相相应
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