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达萨克长老偈:愚人常昏沉,身心惰无勤

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发表于 2021-2-10 13:21:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
《長老偈》TheraGāthā

Middhi yadā hoti mahagghaso ca
Niddāyitā samparivattasāyī
Mahāvarāho'va nivāpapuṭṭho
Punappunaɱ gabbhamupeti mando' ti.

愚人常昏沉,身心惰无勤;
用饭无适量,睡眠无时辰;
活像一懒猪,永沉生死轮。

《长老偈•第1品•第17偈•达萨克长老》

Who becomes slothful and in diet gross,
Given to sleep and rolling as he lies,
Like a huge pig with lots to eat -
The dullard comes back again, again to womb (rebirth).

(TheraGāthā  Chapter 1 Verse 17 Dasaka Thera)

【达萨克长老简介】

Dasaka,达萨克,生于沙瓦提城,为给孤独长者奴仆之子(传说他前生曾差遣一位阿拉汉干活,故此世生于奴仆之家)。给孤独长者常派他清扫寺院,他也缘此常得见佛并闻佛说法。久而生信,皈依出家。因往世习气未改,懒散放逸,不求进取。佛为了教导他,说了此偈,他始勤奋用功,修止观而成阿拉汉。他回忆起佛的教诲,又重述了此偈。

Dasaka Thera

He, by his karma, was reborn in the age of our Exalted One(Buddha) at Sāvatthī, as the child of a slave of Anāthapiṇḍika,and was by him appointed as gate-porter of the Vihara(monastery).[1] Hearing of his virtuous conduct and his wishes, his Lord(Buddha) made him a freed man, and said, how happy it was to leave the life of the world. He was initiated into monkhood accordingly; but from that time he grew slothful and slack of effort, taking no steps to roll back the round of rebirth, and sleeping much after meals. At sermon-time he would get into a corner on the outskirts of the congregation, and sit snoring. Now the Exalted One(Buddha), knowing his antecedents, spoke the following verse to him in order to stir up urgency:

Hearing this, Dasaka grew agitated and, developing insight, not long after realized arahantship(enlightenment). Thereafter he thought 'the verse of the Exalted One(Buddha) became as a goad to me,' and he repeated the verse. Thus, though uttered as a protest concerning food, it became the declaration of his aññā(supreme attainment).

The stanza starting with Middhī yadā constitute that of the venerable Thera Dāsaka. What is the origin? It is said that ninety one aeons (kappa) ago, before the appearance of a Tathāgata, when a silent buddha named Ajita was wandering about for alms-food in a certain village after having descended from Gandhamādana hill to the path of men (manussapatha) he offered delightful mango fruits. On account of that act of merit, he wandered about his rounds of repeated rebirths among divine and human beings and at the time of the Glorious Buddha Kassapa, he became a monk in the dispensation and did much meritorious deeds conducive towards escape from evolution (vaṭṭa) In this manner he was in pursuit of good deeds and going from good existence towards another good existence (sugati), was reborn in a family home at Sāvatthi, when this Buddha arose. His name was Dāsaka. He was appointed (ṭhapita) by the banker householder Anāthapiṇ̄dika to do his duty of properly looking after the monastery and as he kept attending personally on the monastery respectfully he fittingly gained pious faith (saddhā), because of his constantly seeing Buddha and listening to the teaching of dhamma and become a monk. Some, however, say thus:– “This one was reborn in a family home at the time of the Blessed One Kassapa and on having come of age he attended upon a certain canker-free (khīṇāsava) Thera and being desirous of making the Thera do a certain piece of work he gave orders to the Thera.

On account of that act, he was reborn in the womb of a slave-woman of Anāthapiṇ̄dika in Sāvatthi at the time of our Blessed One; on having come of age, he was posted to suitable serve the monastery by the banker and became the gainer of pious faith but in the manner as aforesaid. The great banker on having come to know his moral conduct and his inclination made him free (bhujissa) from serfdom and said thus:– ‘You should become a monk according to your pleasure.’ The bhikkhus(monks) made him a monk. Beginning from the time he became a monk, he happened to be lazy and lacking in energy, and did not perform any duty or return performance (vattapaṭivatta), whence could be monk’s duties (samaṇadhamma); having eaten all he wanted he lived the life of much sleeping. Even at the time of listening to the teaching of dhamma. He would enter a corner, get seated at the all-round end of the audience and would but sleep off snoring with the sound ghuru ghuru. Thereupon the Glorious One having had a look at his former sufficing qualification for the attainment of Arahantship (upanissaya) uttered a stanza starting with “Middhī yadā hoti-mahagghaso ca” for the purpose of provoking his remorse.

There Middhī is to be construed as:– overwhelmed by sloth and drowsiness; whom, indeed, drowsiness overwhelms, him sloth also but overwhelms. Yadā means at whatever time. Mahagghaso means a big eater, similar to one or other of such notorious gluttons as are known as a handful of food (āhārahatthaka), enough garment “curse-coat” (alaṃsāṭaka), provision (vaṭṭaka) there (tattha), touching as much (āmāsaka) as a crow (kāka), vomitter (vamitaka) of what had been eaten (bhutta). Niddāyitā, one who has the habit (sīla) of sleeping (supana). Samparivattasāyī (lying down rolling and turning) got accordingly engaged in enjoying the bliss of lying down, bliss of the side (passa) and bliss of drowsiness by means of both also; thus, he points out.

Nuvāpapuṭṭho is to be construed thus:– nourished and brought up with food for pig comprising the red powder of rice-husks (kuṇ̄daka) and so on; indeed, a house hog, being nourished beginning from the time of its infancy, when the time of his having become fat-bodied arrived, not being allowed to get out of the house but would sleep rolling and turning under the couch and so on. This is what has been said:– When a man is drowsy also and a big eater (mahagghasa) as well, like a big pig nourished by fodder, not being able to conduct itself with any other posture (iriyāpatha) becomes habituated to sleeping, lies rolling about; then he becomes unable to make himself mindful of three characteristics namely: “Impermanence, misery (dukkha) and not being self (anatta); the man of meagre knowledge (mandapañño) because of his not being mindful of them goes towards the womb (gabbha) again and again; he does not but escape thoroughly from abiding in a (mother’s) womb. Having heard that stanza the Thera Dāsaka became remorseful caused himself to have spiritual insight (vipassanā) and visualised Arahantship but before long. Therefore, it has been said in the Apadāna;

“Self-awakened silent buddha named Ajita then dwelt at Himavanta(Himalaya); the Sage was clever in concentration (samādhi) and also endowed with good conduct (caraṇa); I offered mango fruit when the self-awakened silent buddha of gold complexion who was worthy of accep-ting dedicated donations as he entered upon the chariot road.

As a result of having then offered ninety one aeons (kappa) ago, I do not remember any adversity. This is the fruition of fruit offering. My depravity had been burnt; … Buddha’s instruction has been carried out.”

Having, however, attained Arahantship, the Thera saying to himself: “by means of this stanza the Blessed One instructed me; this stanza has become a driving goad (aṇkusa) to me,” he recited in reply (paccudāhāsi) the self-same stanza. This itself has become the Thera’s making manifest of his Arahantship by the method of bringing about the all-round statement (parivattāhāra).


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