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诸恶末作,众善奉行,自净其意,是诸佛教。

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发表于 2017-1-3 22:20:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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发表于 2017-1-5 09:01:17 | 显示全部楼层
诸恶莫作,众善奉行,自净其意,是诸佛教。

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发表于 2017-1-5 09:44:10 | 显示全部楼层
千百年來,这句:诸惡莫作,众善奉行,自淨其意,是诸佛教。
原典出自法句183。
巴利语如此: Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ, kusalassa upasampadā ;
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ, etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.
kusalassa upasampadā 怎么译为众善或诸善呢?此兩词橫看直看都是单数形式,若作为集合名词,也不该译为复数;此外,此兩词都是名词;upasampadā 即是具足戒,此处主词是upasampadā,而非kusalassa。译文集中在善,巴利原典則是在戒,戒具足或善持戒, kusalassa upasampadā 善具戒,或善持戒。此句实情是持戒止惡淨心。現在則是止惡行善淨心。
文法上,kusalassa upasampadā, 这句也很特別的, upasampadā的性与前面的kusalassa不同,所以kusalassa不是修飾后面那词的。

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发表于 2017-1-5 12:42:42 | 显示全部楼层
Kusala (adj.) [cp. Sk. kuśala] 1. (adj.) clever, skilful, expert;
good, right, meritorious M i.226; Dh 44; J i.222. Esp. appl. in
moral sense (=puñña), whereas akusala is practically equivalent
to pāpa. ekam pi ce pāṇaṅ aduṭṭhacitto mettāyati kusalo
tena hoti It 21; sappañño paṇḍito kusalo naro Sn 591, cp. 523;
Pv i.33 (=nipuṇa). With kamma=a meritorious action, in kammaṅ
katvā kusalaṅ D iii.157; Vv iii.27; Pv i.1011 see cpds. —
ācāra — k° good in conduct Dh 376; parappavāda° skilled in
disputation Dpvs iv.19; magga° (and opp. amagga°) one who
is an expert as regards the Path (lit. & fig.) S iii.108; samāpatti°,
etc. A v.156 sq.; sālittaka — payoge k° skilled in the art
of throwing potsherds PvA 282. — In derivation k. is expld
by Dhpāla & Bdhgh by kucchita and salana, viz. kucchita
— salanādi atthena kusalaṅ VvA 169; kucchite pāpadhamme
salayanti calayanti kappenti viddhaṅsenti ti kusalā DhsA 39;
where four alternative derivations are given (cp. Mrs. Rh. D.,
Dhs. trsl. p. lxxxii). — 2. (nt.) a good thing, good deeds,
virtue, merit, good consciousness (citta omitted; cp. DhsA
162, 200, etc.): yassa pāpaṅ kataṅ kammaṅ kusalena pithīyati,
so imaṅ lokaṅ pabhāseti "he makes this world shine, who
covers an evil deed with a good one" M ii.104=Dh 173=Th
1, 872; sukhañ ca k. pucchi (fitness) Sn 981; Vv 301 (=ārogyaṅ);
D i.24; J vi.367; Pv i.13 (=puñña); PvA 75; Miln 25. —
In special sense as ten kusalāni equivalent to the dasasīlaṅ (cp.
sīla) M i.47; A v.241, 274. All good qualities (dhammā) which
constitute right and meritorious conduct are comprised in the
phrase — kusala — dhammā Sn 1039, 1078, expld. in extenso
Nd2 s. v. See also cpd. °dhamma. — Kusalaṅ karoti to do
what is good and righteous, i. e. kāyena, vācāya, manasā It 78;
cp. Dh 53; sabba — pāpassa akaraṇaṅ kusalassa upasampadā
sacittapariyodapanaṅ etaṅ Buddhānusāsanaṅ D ii.49=Dh 183;
cp. Nett 43, 81, 171, 186. Kusalaṅ bhāveti to pursue righteousness
(together with akusalaṅ pajahati to give up wrong
habits) A i.58; iv.109 sq.; It 9. — akusala adj.: improper,
wrong, bad; nt.: demerit, evil deed D i.37, 163; bālo+akusalo
Sn 879, 887;=pāpa PvA 60, cp. pāpapasuto akatakusalo ib.
6. kusalaṅ & akusalaṅ are discussed in detail (with ref. to
rūpâvacara° fivefold, to arūpâvacara° & lokuttara° fourfold,
to kāmâvacara° eight & twelvefold) at Vism 452 — 454. —
kusalâkusala good and bad M i.489; S v.91; Miln 25; Nett
161, 192; Dhs 1124 sq. — sukusala (dhammānaṅ) highly
skilled D i.180 (cp. M. ii.31).
-anuesin striving after righteousness Sn 965; cp.
kinkusalānuesin D ii.151 and kinkusalagavesin M i.163 sq.;
-abhisanda overflow of merit (+puñña°) A ii.54 sq.; iii.51;
337; -kamma meritorious action, right conduct A i.104; 292
sq.; Ps i.85; ii.72 sq.; PvA 9, 26; -cittā (pl.) good thoughts
Vbh 169 — 173, 184, 285 sq., 294 sq.; -cetanā right volition
Vbh 135; -dhammā (pl.) (all) points of righteousness,
good qualities of character S ii.206; M i.98; A iv.11 sq.; v.90
sq.; 123 sq.; Pug 68, 71; Vbh 105; Ps i.101, 132; ii.15, 230;
VvA 74, 127; -pakkha "the side of virtue," all that belongs
to good character M iii.77 (and a°) with adj. °pakkhika S
v.91; -macchariya Dhs 1122 is to be corrected to kula° instead
of kusala° (meanness as regards family) cp. Nd2 on veviccha;
-mūla the basis or root of goodness or merit; there are
three: alobha, adosa, amoha M i.47, 489=A i.203=Nett 183;
D iii.214; Dhs 32, 313, 981; Vbh 169 sq., 210; Nett 126. Cp.
°paccaya Vbh 169; °ropanā Nett 50; -vitakka good reasoning,
of which there are three: nekkhamma°, avyāpāda°, avihiṅsā°
D iii.215; It 82; Nett 126; -vipāka being a fruit of
good kamma Dhs 454; Vism 454 (twofold, viz. ahetuka & sahetuka).
-vedanā good, pure feeling Vbh 3 sq.; cp. °saññā
and °sankhārā Vbh 6 sq.; Nett 126 (three °saññā, same as under
°vitakkā); -sīla good, proper conduct of life M ii.25 sq.;
adj. °sīlin D i.115 (=DA i.286).


Upasampadā (f.) [fr. upa + saṅ + pad] — 1. taking, acquiring;
obtaining, taking upon oneself, undertaking D ii.49; M i.93;
A iii.65; Dh 183 (cp. DhA iii.236); Nett 44 (kusalassa). —
2. (in special sense) taking up the bhikkhuship, higher ordination,
admission to the privileges of recognized bhikkhus [cp.
BSk. upasampad & °padā Divy 21, 281 etc.] Vin i.12, 20, 95,
146 and passim; iii.15; iv.52; D i.176, 177, 202; S i.161; A
iv.276 sq. & passim; DhA ii.61 (pabbajjā +); PvA 54 (laddh°
one who has received ordination), 179 (id.).

extracted from

The Pali Text Society's
Pali-English
Dictionary
EDITED BY
T. W. RHYS DAVIDS F.B.A. D.Sc. Ph.D. LL.D. D.Litt
and WILLIAM STEDE Ph.D.

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发表于 2017-1-5 14:28:14 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2017-1-5 16:18:37 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
geowalker 发表于 2017-1-5 14:28
把“诸恶莫作,众善奉行,自净其意,是诸佛教”理解为不要做坏事,要学习xx好榜样多做好事,这样的解释,我 ...

萨度,萨度,萨度!

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发表于 2017-1-5 16:19:44 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
geowalker 发表于 2017-1-5 14:52
总结起来,这句话中的恶,是指一切最终增长五盖的恶法,而善,是指一切最终有助于圆满七觉支的善法,并非世 ...

萨度,萨度,萨度!

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发表于 2017-1-6 10:11:58 | 显示全部楼层
Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ,
kusalassa sacittapariyodapanaṃ
upasampadā etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ
如此是較合理。

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