觉悟之路 上座部佛教 Theravada Buddhism

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采访马哈希尊者问答

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发表于 2017-3-10 10:46:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Questions and Answers
The following questions and answers are from the booklet “An Interview with Mahasi Sayadaw,” prepared (in Burmese) by Thamanaykyaw and translated by U Hla Myint.

下面的问答出自小册子《采访马哈希尊者》,由达玛奈觉整理(缅文版),乌•拉明英译。英译中: 汤华俊

Q1: Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw, did you have full faith in Satipatthana Vipassana practice when you started it?

问1:尊敬的马哈希尊者,当您开始四念处内观禅修的时候,您具有充分的信心吗?

“No, frankly I didn’t. I did not initially have full faith in it. So, I don’t blame anybody for not having faith in practice before they start it. It is only because they have little or no experience of it. In 1931, when I was in only eighth Vassa (monastic year in terms of seniority), much to my curiosity and confusion, a meditation master called Mingon Zetawin Sayadawji was teaching: Note going when going; note standing when standing; note sitting when sitting; note lying when lying; note bending when bending; note stretching when stretching; note eating when eating. I got confused by the fact that there was no object to observe in ultimate sense, such as mind and body, and their impermanence, suffering and egolessness. But I gave it some consideration and thought: “How strange the way Sayadawji teaches, I’m sure “he is highly learned, and is teaching from his own experience. It may be too early for me to decide whether it is good or bad before I myself practice it.” Thus, I started to practice with him.

坦率地说,没有。开始我并没有充分的信心。我不会因任何人开始禅修前没信心而责怪他们,因为他们没有或者只有极少的禅修经验。 在1931年我只有八年戒腊(按出家年数排的资历),对禅修大师明贡 •则达雯尊者的教导很好奇又很迷茫:走时观照走,站时观照站,弯屈时观照弯曲,伸展时观照伸展,躺时观照躺,吃时观照吃。 我迷茫是因为并没有究竟意义上的所缘可进行观照,诸如名色及其无常、苦、无我。但我也觉得可以考虑并想:“尊者教导的方法好奇特,我确信他非常有学问并且是根据自身经验在教导,在我亲自修持以前就说它或好或坏都为时过早。”于是我开始跟他禅修。

Q2: Venerable Sir, could you explain the meaning of Satipatthana?

问2:尊者,您能否解释一下念处的含义?

Satipatthana means mindfulness or remembering constantly. What one is supposed to remember without fail are all physical, sensational, mental or general phenomena the moment they occur to him or her.

念处即是正念或者说是持续地忆持不忘失,一个人应该忆持不失的是当下发生于他/她的所有生理的、感觉的、心理的或一般的现象。

Q3: Venerable Sir, I believe you made very fast progress in your practice arousing one insight knowledge after another. Didn’t you?

问3:尊者,我相信您修行中进步神速,观智一个接一个地生起,是吗?

No, I didn’t. I could not appreciate the practice three or four weeks after I had started because I did not yet exercise enough effort. Some of the yogis here, however, even though the practice is new to them, manage to develop enough concentration and mindfulness after a week or so, to see impermanence, suffering, and insubstantiality to some extent. For me, I could not make any remarkable progress in the practice even after a month or so, let alone four or five days. I was then still at zero progress in my practice. This is because my faith in the practice was not strong enough, and I did not make enough effort. At this point, skeptical doubt called Vicikiccha, usually hinders the insight knowledge and Magga- Phala from taking  place. So it is very important to do away with such doubt. But, I was wasting my time by mistaking the skeptical doubt for productive analysis.

不是。开始三、四周我并不很认同这种修法,因为我没有足够用功。然而这里的有些禅修者虽然刚学这种禅修方法,就在一周左右的时间里致力培育出了足够的定力和正念,在一定程度上见到了无常、苦、无我。而我在一个月左右时间里禅修都没有明显的进步,更别说四、五天了。我那时禅修的进展仍然是零,这是因为我的信心不够,所以没有付出足够的精进。这种情况通常是疑盖阻碍了观智和道果的生起。所以祛除这种疑盖是很重要的。我确实在浪费时间,误以为这种怀疑是有效的分析。

I thought it was only a conventional or conceptual way of practice and not in the ultimate sense that one observes objects such as going, bending, stretching, etc. The Venerable Sayadawji taught me in that way as a basic training. Perhaps, later he would teach me how to distinguish between mind and body, etc. Later on, while continuing with this practice I spontaneously realized: “Wow! This is not just a basic training, but noting physical and mental behaviors, like going, bending, stretching, etc., are also intermediate advanced instructions, too. These are all I need to observe. Nothing else.”

我想,观察走、弯曲、伸展等只是世俗谛的或者概念性的修法,而不是究竟意义上的修法,尊敬的尊者这样教我只是一种基础训练,也许后面他会教我如何分辨名色等等。后来,当继续这样用功的时候我一下自发地认识到:“啊!这不只是基础训练,观照身心的行为如行走、弯曲、伸展等等也是高阶的指导。这些是我所需要观照的全部,而不是别的。”

Q4: Venerable Sir, what do we have to note when we start our practice? When going, for example, are we supposed to note the mind and body involved?

问4:尊者,当我们开始禅修的时候必须观照什么?例如,当我们走的时候,应当观照所涉及到的身心吗?

“Yatha-pakatam Vipassana-bhiniveso” =“Vipassana stays with any obvious object” it is said in the subcommentary on the Visuddhimagga. So, one is instructed to start his or her Vipassana by noting any obvious object; i.e., an object easy to note. You should not start with subtle or difficult objects thinking that you will accomplish the practice sooner rather than later. For example, when a student begins schooling, he should begin with easy lessons. He could not be given difficult ones. In the same way, you should start the practice with the easiest observations. The Buddha teaches the easy way: “when going,” for example, note “going”. That’s it.

“Yatha-pakatam Vipassana-bhiniveso”=“内观保持观照任何明显的所缘”,这是《清净道论》复注所说。所以我们教导禅修者从观照任何明显的所缘开始内观,即是从容易观照的目标开始。你不能以为从微细或难于观察的目标开始会更快地完成禅修而不是滞后。就如学生开始上学要从容易的课程开始,不能是艰难的课程。同理,你应当从最容易的观照开始禅修。佛陀教你易行的方法,例如,“走之时”观照“走”,就这么简单。

Q5: Venerable Sir, is it possible to experience phenomena in an ultimate sense by merely observing“going,” for example, as going in a conceptual way?

问5:尊者,例如,仅仅通过观照“走”为走这样世俗的方法,能够体验究竟法吗?

There are three kinds of “I”. The first is the “I” mistaken for a person or ego in terms of wrong view (ditthi). The “I” taken as someone Important in a sense of pride (māna) is the second one. And the last one is the “I” we use in every day language in a conversational sense. When you note “going” as going, the “I” involved is the third kind, which was used even by the Buddha and Arahats, as it has nothing to do with ditthi and māna. So I instruct yogis to note in every day language every step they take as “going.”

有三种意义上的“我”,第一种“我”是由于邪见而误认为有个人或自我,第二种是因为我慢而认为“我”是比较重要的某个人,最后一种是日常用语的世俗意义上的“我”。

Although conventional language is used, a yogi is bound to experience phenomena in an ultimate sense beyond the concepts when his concentration gets strong enough. When going, for example, at some point, he or she is bound to experience the intention to take a step, the stiffness, tension or motion involved, and their constant changes. He or she will not find solid form or shape, but the phenomena arising and passing away on their own accord. In due course of time, he or she will see not only objects to observe, but also the concurrent noting mind itself arising and passing away immediately.

尽管所用的是世俗语言,但是当禅修者的定力变得足够强的时候他一定会超越概念体证究竟法。例如,经行中的某个时刻他/她一定会体会到其中想抬脚的意愿、绷、紧、移动以及它们的不断变化。他/她会发现没有坚固形体或形状,只是自然而然生起和消失的现象。到时他/她不仅会看到观照的目标,也会看到同时出现的观照之心本身生起又即刻灭去。

If you don’t believe it, try it. I ensure you that if you follow my instruction, you will, indeed experience it for yourself .

如果你不信,就试试看。如果你按我的教导去做,我保证你确实会自己经历到。

Q6: Venerable Sir, did you initiate the observation of “rising falling” of the abdomen  when  breathing?

问6:尊者,是你开创了观照腹部随呼吸“起-伏”吗?

No, I’m not the one who initiated the observation of “rising-falling.”  Actually it was  the Buddha who did it, because he taught to observe Vayo-dhatu  the air-element included  it the five aggregates. The rising and falling is constituted of the air element. Initially, some people questioned the observation of the rising and falling of the abdomen. However, encouraged by friends, they tried later on, they appreciated it so much that they even criticized the former nitpickers. I’m sure every one who tries it will appreciate it from his or her own experience, just like the taste of sugar which one can appreciate directly from one’s own experience.

不,我不是首创观照“起-伏”的人,实际上正是由佛陀首创,因为他教导观照包含于五蕴中的风元素。起伏是风元素形成的。开始有些人质疑观照腹部起伏,然而,后来在朋友的鼓励下尝试之后,他们非常赞赏这种方法以至于批评以前吹毛求疵的人。我确信,每个来尝试的人都会因自己的亲身经历而赞赏这个方法,就如尝过糖的人能够由自己的亲身经历做出评价。

Q7: Venerable Sir, in Vipassana practice is it necessary to label or name an object such as “rising, falling” etc.?

问7:内观修行需要对所缘进行标记或称名吗,如“起、伏”等等?

Names, whether they are in technical terms or in ordinary language, are all conceptual or conventional and not that important. What matters most is to be aware of the phenomena involved in an object like “rising and falling of the abdomen when breathing.” In reality, just being aware of an object without labeling at all, will serve the purpose. Without labeling, however, it may be difficult to be fully aware of an object precisely and accurately. Also, it will not be easy for the yogi to report his or her experience to the teacher, or for a teacher to give advice to the yogi. That is the reason why the yogi is instructed to label an object when he or she notes it. Even then, it would be difficult to use technical terms for all objects a yogi encounters. That is why I instruct yogis to use ordinary language like “rising, falling” when he or she practices.

不管是专业术语还是日程用语中,名字都是属于概念或世俗的,因此并不重要。重要的是觉知所缘涉及的现象如“呼吸时腹部的起伏”,实际上,只需觉知目标根本不需标记就能达到目的。然而不用标记可能难于精准而充分地觉知目标,学生也不方便向老师汇报自己的体验,老师也不方便给学生指导。这是为什么我们教学生在观照目标时进行标记。即使这样,也难于用佛教名相标记所有禅修者遇到的所缘,因此我教学生在禅修中使用日常用语如“起、伏”。

Q8: Venerable Sir, do you always encourage us to label an object?

问8:尊者,您总是鼓励我们标记所缘吗?

No, not always. There are times you find objects occurring to you so fast that you have no time to label them each. Then you have to keep up with them by being merely aware of them moment to moment, without labeling. It is also possible to be aware of four, five or ten objects spontaneously, although you are able to label only one of them. Don’t worry about that. It also serves your purpose. If you try to label all the objects occurring, you are likely to get soon exhausted. The point is to be scrupulously aware of objects; i.e., in terms of their characteristics. In this case, you can also note objects occurring through  the six senses moment to moment instead of noting routinely,

不,并不总是。在你发现所缘生起太快的时候你没有时间一一标记,此时你需要做的仅仅是刹那刹那地觉知它们以跟上所缘,无须标记。也可能你自动地觉知到四个、五个或十个目标,但你可能只能标记其中一个,如果你试图标记生起的全部目标,可能很快就会疲惫。要点是细心觉知目标,也就是说注意其特征。在这种情况下,你也可以观照刹那刹那生起在六根门的目标,而不像前面那样按部就班地。

Q9: Venerable Sir, is there any disadvantage by not labeling a meditation object, like rising, falling, sitting, standing, doing, lying and so on?

问9:尊者,不标记禅修目标,如起、伏、站、坐、做、躺,有什么不利因素吗?

Yes, of course, there are some disadvantages in not labeling a meditation object: inaccurate concurrence of mind and meditative object, superficial awareness, energy reduction,  and  so  on.

当然是这样,不标记禅修目标有一些不利因素如:观照的心和观照目标不能精确地同时生起,只是表浅的觉知,精进力减退,等等。

Q10: Venerable Sir, if noting “sitting, sitting” when one is sitting serves one’s purpose, why is one instructed to note “rising, falling” when one is sitting?

问10:尊者,如果坐时观照“坐、坐”是目的,为什么还要教我们坐时观“起、伏”呢?

Of course, it serves one’s purpose to note “sitting, sitting” when sitting. But if one observes a single kind of object for long, it would become so easy that he may lose balance from little energy and too much concentration. This would result in sloth and torpor and  shallow   or  weak  awareness.  That’s why one is instructed to observe  “rising and  falling”  as a main object when one is sitting.

当然,坐时观坐是目的,但一个人观照单一目标太长,就会变得太容易观照,以至于会因为精进力太少、定力太过而失去平衡。这会导致昏沉睡眠和表浅的觉知或无力的觉知。这是为何教你坐时以观照“起、伏”作为主要所缘。





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 楼主| 发表于 2017-3-10 10:47:45 | 显示全部楼层
Q11: Venerable Sir, how does a yogi keep the balance between concentration and energy by noting “rising and falling?”

问11:尊者,禅修者如何通过观照“起、伏”保持定与精进的平衡?

Noting “rising and falling” demands neither too much concentration as it is not a monotonous kind of object, nor excessive enthusiasm as it’s only two types of object to note.  Thus, the balance can be kept between concentration and energy.

观照“起、伏”既不需要过度的定力因为它不是单调类型的所缘,也不需要过度的热忱因为只有两种所缘需要观照,因此能够保持定和精进的平衡。

Q12: Venerable Sir, what is the purpose for the rotation of one-hour sitting and one-hour  walking  in  practice?

问12:尊者, 禅修中一小时坐禅一小时行禅相互交替的目的是什么?

Too much walking tends to arouse more energy but less concentration. So one is scheduled to sit and walk alternately an hour each. Thus,  the balance can be kept between  concentration  and energy.

太多经行易于激起较多精进力但定力却比较少,所以安排打坐、经行各一小时交替进行,这样能够保持定和精进的平衡。

Q13: Venerable Sir, if one notes “rising and falling,” will one be expected to be solely  aware of the abdomen itself rising and falling?

问13:尊者,观照“起与伏”就是要仅仅觉知腹部自身的起与伏吗?

Yes, indeed, in the beginning of practice, one is plainly aware of the abdomen itself. There is no problem in that. Enlightenment of magga phala is not expected in the beginning,  of  course.  Even Nama-rupa-pariccheda-ñana   (the first  and foremost insight  distinguishing  between mind and body) cannot be gained. In the beginning of practice, one has to work to keep the hindrances (wandering thoughts) away by noting them closely. Only when the hindrances are kept away for quite a long time (Vikkhambhana) and the mind is free of them, will a yogi start to experience true phenomena involved in the “rising and falling,” such  as  stiffness, tension, vibration and so on, beyond the plain abdomen.

是的,确实是这样,开始禅修的时候,你简单地觉知腹部本身,这没什么问题。当然,并不指望你在一始就证悟道果,甚至不指望获得名色分辨智(分辨心和身是第一个也是最初的观智)。在禅修开始阶段你必须用功密切标记观照(妄念)以远离盖障,只有当远离五盖相当长时间(镇服),内心已净除五盖,禅修者才会体验到“起与伏”所涉及的真实法如绷、紧、振动等等,而不只是平板一块的腹部。

Q14: Venerable Sir, what is a yogi expected to be aware of when standing?

问14 :尊者,站的时候禅修者应当觉知什么?

When standing, just note continuously “standing, standing.” If it becomes monotonous because it is a single object, then a prominent touching point should be added to it, noting “standing, touching; standing, touching.” Or you note “rising and falling” of  the  abdomen,  instead.

站的时候只是连续观照“站、站”,如果因为它是单一的所缘觉得单调了,此时可加入一个凸显的触点,观照“站、触、站、触”,或者代之以观照腹部“起、伏”。

Q15: Venerable Sir, is it the temperature element, or unpleasant sensation (dukkha), when a yogi is aware of cold or heat?
问15:尊者,当禅修者觉察到冷或热,它就是火大或苦吗?

When a yogi is simply aware of heat, that is the experience of the temperature element. If he or she finds the heat uneasy or uncomfortable, that’s experience of Dukkha. Similarly  with cold wind or water, it can be temperature, or unpleasant sensation accordingly.

当禅修者简单地觉察到热,这是经验到火元素,如果发现热不自在或不舒服,就是经验苦。冷风和冷水也类似,相应地可以是火元素,也可以是苦受。

Q16: Venerable Sir, how does a yogi experience apo-dhātu, the water element?

问16: 尊者,禅修者如何才能体验到水元素?

(Actually, the water element is untouchable, but) a yogi can experience it as “liquidity or  wetness” being connected with  other elements.  So when one feels tears,  phlegm, saliva  and sweat flowing down,  the apo-dhātu,  water element  can be experienced  as “liquidity  or  wetness”in any part of the body.

(实际水元素是不能通过身触感知的,但是)禅修者能以关联其它元素的“液体或湿性”体验到它,当你觉知泪、痰、唾液和汗水流下,你能在身体任何部位以“液体或湿性”体验到水元素。

Q17: Venerable Sir, what does a yogi need to do to see phenomena clearly?
问17 :尊者, 禅修者需要做什么才能清晰地观照现象?

At night, for example, one cannot see things clearly. But if one uses torchlight, things can be clearly seen in the spot light. In the same way,concentration can be compared to the light, through which one can see phenomena clearly: the manner of rising and falling, and the tension, tightness and movement etc.

例如,在夜晚你不能清楚地看见东西,但如果用一个手电筒,东西在光照下就能看清楚。同样,定力可比作光,依靠它可以清晰地观照现象:起伏的方式,张力,紧绷,移动,等等。

Q18: Venerable Sir, why do you instruct yogis to start their practice with noting “rising and falling”?

问18:尊者,为什么你教禅修者从观照“起与伏”开始禅修?

It will take time to develop concentration if you note an obiect too varied, or too subtle, while it can be aroused faster if you observe an obvious and limited object. That is why we instruct yogis to start their practice with watching the abdomen characterized by stiffness, pressure, vibration, which are identical with vayo-dhātu, the air-element.

如果观照过于变化多端或太微细的所缘,需要花很长时间才能培养出定力,而当你观照明显和有限的所缘,能较快地生起定力。这就是为什么我们教导禅修者从观照腹部开始禅修,其紧绷、挤压、振动的特征正是风元素。

Q19: Venerable Sir, are there only two objects to note, “rising and falling”?

问19:尊者,只有两个观照的所缘吗,“起与伏”?

Yes, one is instructed to note initially only two objects, “rising and falling.” He is, however, instructed to note thoughts also if they occur to him, and then to go back to the main object. Similarly with pain. He should go back to the main object when the pain fades away, or after a moderate amount of time even if the pain persists. The same is true with bending or stretching his limbs, or changing his posture. He should note each and every activity or behavior involved in it, and then go back to the main object. If one sees or hears something predominant, one must note it as it is; i.e., “seeing,” “hearing” and so on. After noting them three or four times, one must go back to the main object with full energy.

是的,我们教导开始只观照两个所缘,“起与伏”。然而我们也教导禅修者在妄念生起的时候观照妄念,随后回到主要所缘。疼痛也是一样,当疼痛消失或者过了一段适中的时间疼痛仍然持续,他应当回到主要所缘。这同样适用于屈伸肢体或变换姿势,他应该观照这些过程中的每一个动作,然后回到主要所缘。如果看见或听见的所缘占了支配地位,他必须如实观照,“看见”、“听见”,等等。在观照它们三、四次后,他必须以全部精进力回到主要所缘。

Q20: Venerable Sir, is it possible to bring about insight knowledge by observing the objects like going or right step, left step, which are known in
common sense to every body?

问20 :尊者,观察所缘如走或者左步、右步,这些在通俗的意义上尽人皆知,由此能引生观智吗?

You know the Ana-pana pratice, the observation of in-and-out breath. The object, “inhalation and exhalation” seems not to be observed, as it’s known by common sense to everyone. But no one dares to criticize like that. In the same way, it makes no sense if you criticize that mindfulness, concentration and insight knowledge cannot be developed by noting “right, left” which is compared with military training. The military training is taken for the purpose of sport or health, while the noting is used to develop mindfulness, concentration and insight knowledge. If  you  reject this  part  of the  practice,   that  will mean you are rejecting the teaching of the Buddha.

你知道修安般念即观照出入息,对其所缘“入息与出息”的观照,似乎并非如通俗意义上尽人皆知的那样,但没人敢像这样批评。同理,如果你批评观照“左步、右步”象军事训练所以不能培育正念、定力和观智,这样就毫无意义。军事训练的目的是为了锻炼或健康,而标记观照是为了培育正念、定力和观智。

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 楼主| 发表于 2017-3-10 10:49:15 | 显示全部楼层
Q21: Venerable Sir, what does it mean by the word, “noting”?

问21:尊者,“观照(noting)”一词是什么意思?

The word, “noting” means to pay attention to a meditative object with the purpose to be aware of phenomena that are really happening from moment to moment.

“观照(noting)”一词的意思是:为了觉知刹那刹那正在真实发生的现象将注意力用在禅修目标上。

Q22: Venerable Sir, for what purpose do you instruct us to act very slowly?

问22:您教导我们动作要非常缓慢是为什么?

It is only when you act slowly that your concentration, mindfulness and insight knowledge can keep up with the objects. That’s the reason why you have to start the practice by doing everything slowly and mindfully. Indeed, in the beginning, if you do things fast, your mindfulness or awareness cannot follow.

只有当你动作非常缓慢的时候你的定力、正念和观智才能跟上所缘。这是为什么你必须从做每一件事都缓慢而有正念这样开始禅修。开始的时候如果你做事很快,确实你的正念或者觉知无法跟随。

Q23: Venerable Sir, is there any kind of pain or discomfort which belongs to the practice itself? If so, how do we have to deal with it?

问23:尊者,是否有某种属于禅修本身的疼痛或不适?如果有,我们如何应对?

Yes, you may experience several kinds of unpleasant sensations like itchiness, heat, pain, ache, heaviness, stiffness and so on when your concentration gets very strong. They tend to disappear once you stop practice. But, they may reappear if you resume your practice. Then, that is surely not a disease or illness, but just unpleasant sensation which belongs to the practice. Don’t worry. If you keep on noting, eventually it will fade away.

是,当定力变得很强时,你可能经历好几种不愉快的觉受如痒、热、疼、痛、重、绷等等,一旦你停止禅修它们就趋于消失,但当你重新开始禅修它们可能再现。此时确实不是生病,而只是属于禅修的不愉快觉受,不要担心。如果你不断观照,它们最终会消失。

Q24: Venerable Sir, what are we supposed to note when the rising and falling fade away?

问24:尊者,当腹部起伏消失了我们应当观照什么?

When the rising and falling fade away, you are supposed to note: “sitting, touching” or “lying, touching.” You can change touching points. For example, you note “sitting, touching” paying attention to a touch point on the right foot, and then note “sitting, touching”focusing a touching point on the left foot. Thus, you can shift your attention from one touch point to another. Or, you can shift your attention to four, five or six touch points alternately.

当腹部起伏消失了你应当观照“坐、触”或“躺、触”。你可以变换触点,例如,你观照“坐、触”注意右脚的触点,然后观照“坐、触”专注左脚的触点。这样你可变换你的注意力从一个触点到另一个触点。或者你可以在四、五或六个触点上轮换观照。

Q25: Venerable Sir, which touching point should we note among others?

问25:在别的一些触点中我们应该观照哪一个?

Any touching point is possible to note. If you note, for instance, a touching on one’s buttock as “touching, touching,” that is correct; note it on one’s knee as “touching, touching,” that is correct; note it on one’s hands as “touching, touching,” that is correct; note it on one’s head as “touching, touching,” that is correct; note in-and-out breath as “touching, touching,” that is correct; note it in one’s intestines or liver as “touching, touching,” that is correct; note it on one’s abdomen as “touching, touching”, that is correct.

任何一个触点都可以观照。例如,如果你观照臀部的接触为“触、触”,这是对的;观照膝盖的接触为“触、触”,这是对的;观照手的接触为“触、触”,这是对的;观照头的接触为“触、触”,这是对的;观照出入息的接触为“触、触”,这是对的;观照肠或肝的接触为“触、触”,这是对的;观照腹部的接触为“触、触”,这是对的。

Q26: Venerable Sir, should we rather observe stiffness, motion or movement when walking if we are supposed to be aware of the characteristics?

问26:尊者,如果说我们应该觉知特性,那么经行时我们更应该观察绷、动或移动,对吗?

The Buddha said: “Be aware of going, when going”. When we walk, the air-element prevails, which is experienced as pressure, or stiffness in terms of its characteristics, or motion, pushing or movement in terms of its function. The Buddha, however, did not instruct us to note it as “pressure,” “stifthess,” “movement.” “motion” or “pushing.” The Buddha’s actual instruction is: “Be aware of going, when going”. That’s all. The reason is he wanted to give the easy and understandable way. Noting in conventional language is quite familiar and easy to every body, of course.

佛陀说:“走时知道走”。当我们行走的时候,风元素很显著,我们体验到挤压、紧绷,这是风元素的特性;或者运动、推动、移动,这是风元素的作用。但佛陀并没有教我们观照它为“挤压”、“紧绷”、“移动”、“运动”或“推动”,佛陀实际的教导是:“走时知道走”,就是这样而已。其原因是佛陀想教我们易行能懂的方法。显然,用世俗语言标记观照则人人都熟悉易行。

Q27: Would it not be harmful to one’s health if one practiced too intensively?

问27:如果一个人太强化地禅修会有害于健康吗?

It is said in the pali texts: “kaye ca jivite ca anapekkhatam upatthapeti = with no regards to one’s life and limbs.” This encourages one to practice with heroic effort, even to sacrifice one’s life and limbs. Some may think: “how horrible the practice is!” In fact, no one has died from intensive practice, and it is not even harmful to one’s health. Actually, there are many testimonies that some people have been cured of chronic diseases by practicing this meditation.

巴利经典说,“kaye ca jivite ca anapekkhatam upatthapeti = 不顾自己的生命和肢体”,就是鼓励一个人以英雄般的精进进行禅修,甚至不顾牺牲自己的生命和肢体。有人可能想“修行太可怕了!” 事实上,没人因为强化地禅修而死去,甚至也对健康无害。实际上 ,有很多例证显示有人修这个法治好了慢性疾病。

Q28: Venerable Sir, can you mention suitable postures of sitting?

问28:尊者,您能说一下合适的坐姿吗?

There are three postures of cross-legged sitting: the first  is the sitting with  both soles  facing up like a Buddha statue does; the second is with one’s calves kept parallel, or on each other; and the third is the way Myanmar women do with their knees folded underneath, which is called addha-pallanka  (half  cross-legged sitting).  Any one is suitable.   For women,  they can sit the way  they like,  unless in public. The point is to be able to sit for a long time, so that concentration will get chance to take place, develop eventually resulting in insight knowledge.

有三种盘坐姿势:第一种两脚心向上象佛像那样坐;第二种是两小腿平行(放于地上)或者重叠,第三种是象缅甸女性那样,屈膝之后(两小腿)放在下面,这叫作addha-pallanka(半盘坐)。任何一种都可以。对女性,她们可以按他们喜欢的方式坐,在公共场合例外。要点是要能坐得长久,这样定力有机会生起和增长,最终导致观智。

Q29: Venerable Sir, do you advise yogis not to speak at all during practice?

问29:尊者,您告诫禅修者修行中间完全不说话吗?

No, I don’t. It is not advisable to do so. It would be wise, however, not to speak of anything frivolous or unnecessary. One should only speak of things necessary, beneficial or doctrinal, and in moderation. Thus, both worldly and spiritual progress can be made.

不,我没有,这是不明智的。而明智的做法是不说任何无聊的或不必要的。只说必须的、有益的或佛法的,并且有节制。这样能获得世俗和心灵两方面的进步。

Q30: ls it possible to note an object a moment after it takes place?

问30:可能在一个所缘生起过后的瞬间观照吗?

No, of course not. Even though you can buy something on credit and pay for it later, no credit is given in the case of Vipassana. So, you must note an object the moment it takes place lest you become attached to it.

不,当然不行。你可以赊账买东西,随后再付钱,但观禅里却不能赊账,所以你必须在一个所缘生起的刹那观照,不然你会执著于它。

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 楼主| 发表于 2017-3-10 10:50:47 | 显示全部楼层
Q31: Venerable Sir, what is a yogi expected to be aware of when sitting or lying?

问:31 尊者,禅修者在坐或卧的时候要觉知什么?

When sitting, just note “sitting, sitting” continuously. If it is boring and monotonous, since it is a single object, then a prominent touching point should be added to it, noting “sitting, touching; sitting, touching.” Or you can note “rising and falling” of the abdomen instead, focusing on the sensation of the air-element characterized by stiffness,  movement.   Similarly with lying down.

坐的时候只是连续观照“坐、坐”,如果因为是单一所缘而觉得无聊和单调,可以加进来一个显著的触点,观照“坐、触,坐、触”。或者你可以代之以观照腹部的“起与伏”,专注在风元素的感觉上,紧绷、移动是其特征。卧时观照与此类似。

Q32: Venerable Sir, what should a yogi do, if or when he or she finds the observation of “rising, falling” too easy or a gap noticeable between them?

问32:尊者,如果禅修者发现观照“起、伏”太容易或者起、伏之间有空档,他该怎么办?

A yogi, adding the sitting posture to the “rising, falling,” should note three objects: “rising, falling, sitting; rising, falling, sitting.” He or she must be aware of “sitting” in the same manner as “rising, falling.” Even then if a gap is found in between, note four objects by adding a prominent touching point to it: “rising, falling, sitting, touching.” When lying  down,  note in  similarly  way:  “rising, falling, lying, touching”,  or “rising, lying,  falling,  lying.”

禅修者应当在“起、伏”中加入坐姿,进而观照三个所缘“起、伏、坐;起、伏、坐”。他/她应该以觉知“起、伏”的方式觉知“坐”。如果这样还发现有空档,加入一个显著的触点观照四个所缘,“起、伏、坐、触”。 躺卧时,以类似的方式观照“起、伏、躺、触”,或“起、躺、伏、躺”。

Q33: Venerable Sir, does age make a difference in one’s practice?

问33:尊者,年纪大小会造成修行上的差别吗?

Yes, there is some differences between the old and the young. In order to reach to a certain level of insight knowledge, one man, for example, at the age of twenty or thirty, may take about a month, and another in his sixties or seventies has to take two or three months. It is because the young are physically healthier, mentally active, and less worried than the old. Of course, the older they get, the sicklier they become. The old have weaker memory and understanding, and stronger commitments and worries. As for a monk, it would be great if he would practice soon after his ordination. Because as a newly ordained monk, he is still young and has strong faith in the practice, and his moral conduct is also still flawless. So, in my opinion, however important his study is, a monk should practice soon after his ordination, for three months at least. There were some monks who unfortunately passed away before they could practice. What a pity!---

是,老年人和年轻人有些差别。例如,为了达到某一阶观智,一个二、三十岁的人可能需一个月,而另一个六、七十岁的人可能需要两、三个月。因为年轻人和老人比,身体更健康、内心更有活力、更少担忧。显然,人越老病越多。老人记忆力和理解力都较差些,有更多的担当和担忧。对一个出家人来说,出家后立即禅修最好。新受戒的出家人,仍然年轻且对修行有强力的信心,他的戒行也完好无缺。所以,我的意见是,学习不管多么重要,一个出家人受戒后应该尽快禅修,至少修三个月。有些出家人没能禅修就不幸去世,多么可悲!----

Q34: Venerable Sir, does our concentration or awareness make a difference in our experience of pain?
问34:尊者,在我们经受疼痛的时候,定力和觉知会造成差别吗?

When your concentration and awareness are not yet strong, you will find the pain increasing while noting pain, stiffness or heat. But you should keep on noting it with patience and persistence. They often fade away when concentration and awareness are strong enough. Sometimes, while you are noting it, you may find it disappears on the spot. Such type of pain may no longer come back.

当你的定力和觉知还不够强的时候,你会发现观照痛、热、紧绷的时候疼痛会增强,但你应该以耐心和毅力持续观照,当定力和觉知足够强时,它们通常会消失。有时当你正在观照它,发现它就在那个地方消失,这类疼痛可能不会再回来。

Q35: Venerable Sir, does one’s sex make a difference in making faster progress in practice?

问35:尊者,一个人的性别会在修行进步速度方面造成差别吗?

I often find that women work harder along with strong faith in their teacher and his guidance. As a result, they develop concentration sooner rather than later. This in return arouses insight knowledge faster. Thus, I often find women make faster progress in practice than men do. I also found, however, some women who wasted their time with their wandering thoughts, and made no progress. There are several reasons why they make little or no progress in their practice such as laziness, old age, poor health and so on. Of course, there are also men and monks who make fast progress in their practice when following the instructions strictly.

我经常注意到女性更用功,对她们的老师和他的教导有强力的信心,结果他们更快培养出定力而不是相反,依次又更快生起观智。因此,我常常发现女性修行比男性进步更快。但我也注意到,有的女性打妄想浪费了她们的时间,没有任何进步。她们没有进步或只有一丁点进步有几种原因,诸如懒惰、年纪大、健康不佳等等。当然,也有男性和出家男众严格按照禅修指导用功,修行进步很快。

Q36: Venerable Sir, is it true that for learned persons, their knowledge forms an obstacle to the progress in their practice?

问36:尊者,真是这样吗,有学问的人他们的知识会形成禅修进步的障碍?

No, it’s not suitable to say so. It is impossible that one’s knowledge is an obstacle to the practice. As you may know, a highly learned monk called Potthila became an Arahat sooner rather than later by practicing under the guidance of a young novice. In view of this, it is clear that one’s education or knowledge cannot be an obstruction to the progress in the practice. As a matter of fact, the real obstacles are pride in one’s education or knowledge, little or no faith in the practice, skeptical doubt, failure to follow strictly the guidance of the teacher, lack of heroic effort, and so on. Such are real obstacles to the development of concentration and insight knowledge.

不,这样说不合适,一个人的知识不可能是禅修的障碍。你知道,一个叫帕提拉(Patthila)的极有学问的比库,在一个年轻沙弥的指导下修行,他更快地成了阿罗汉而不是相反。就此而言非常清楚,一个人所受的教育或其学识不可能是修行进步的障碍。实际上,真正的障碍是以学历或学识为骄傲,缺少对修行的信心或没有信心,疑,没有严格遵循老师的教导,缺乏英勇的努力,等等。这些是培养定力和观智的真正障碍。

Q37: Venerable Sir, is there any difference between meditators and non-meditators  when   they face with a painful illness?

问37:尊者,当面对痛苦的疾病时,禅修者和非禅修者会不一样吗?

Yes, of course. Non-meditator can only remember to take precepts,  to listen  to the   Paritta  chanting, to donate robes or food and  so on.   What a pity,  they can only   perform   charity  and morality! As for meditators,  they remember to perform high-level practice  until they  become enlightened  by noting closely  their discomfort itself moment to moment.

是的,当然是这样。非禅修者只能记得受戒,听诵护卫经,供养袈裟和食物等等。多么遗憾,他们只能行善和守戒!而作为禅修者,他们记得刹那刹那地密切观照他们的苦受本身,这样进行高阶修行直到证果。

Q38: Venerable Sir, should we insist on practice without spiritual aptitude (pārami) strong enough for Magga, Phala enlightenment?

问38:尊者,如果没有足以证悟道果的心智天赋(菠萝蜜)我们应该坚持禅修吗?

If you do not practice, your spiritual aptitude (pārami) can, by no means, be formed. In other words, even if your pārami is fully accumulated, you cannot be enlightened without practice. On the other hand, if you practice, your pārami will be formed, which will help you experience Nibbāna sooner. If your pārami is fully developed, you will be enlightened in this very life. Or it will serve, at least, as a seed for enlightenment in the future.

如果你不修,你的心智天赋(菠萝蜜)就无法形成。换句话说,即使你积累了充足的菠萝蜜,你不修怎能证悟。另一方面,如果你修行,你的菠萝蜜就会形成,这会有助于你更快体证涅槃。如果你已经培养了充足的菠萝蜜,你会在这一生证悟。不然,修行也至少会成为未来证悟的种子。

Q39: Venerable Sir, is it realization of impermanence when we see, for example, a pot break down or of suffering when we have a pain caused by a thorn in our flesh?

问39:尊者,例如当我们看见罐子被打碎是证知了无常吗?或者感受到刺扎入皮肉的疼痛是证知了苦吗?

Sometimes, you discern impermanence when you find a pot break down, or suffering when you have a pain caused by a thorn in your flesh. That is, actually conventional knowledge of impermanence, which cannot help you to realize egolessness in an ultimate sense. On the other hand, the real realization of impermanence takes place when you see present phenomena arising and passing away, and that of suffering when you see them tortured by the flux. Only then, can you realize the egolessness in an ultimate sense.

有时,当发现罐子被打碎你从中看到了无常,感受到刺扎入皮肉的疼痛你从中看到了苦,实际上,这是世俗的无常的智慧,这无助于你在究竟意义上证知无我。另一方面,真正证知无常是发生在你看到当下的现象的生灭的时候,证知苦则发生在你看到当下现象为生灭流转的逼恼。只有此时,你才在究竟意义上证知无我。

Q40: Venerable Sir, can you describe how we are supposed to realize egolessness in an ultimate sense? .

问40:尊者,您能描述一下我们应该怎样在究竟意义上证知无我吗?

Some believe that realization of egolessness takes place if or when you lose your sense of body shape or form by visualizing physical body as particles. Actually, it is not the realization of egolessness that you merely lose the sense of solidity or form of the body by practicing whatever way. It is because you are clearly experiencing the knowing mind and identifying it with “I” or ego. This is similar to the celestial beings called arupa brahama, who have no physical body but still mistake their mind for “I” or ego. So the mere loss of sense of solid form cannot mean realization of egolessness. Only when you observe mind and body the moment they take place and see them arising and passing away on their own accord without subject to anyone’s authority, do you realize the egolessness in an ultimate sense.

有的人认为,当你观身体为微粒而失去了身体的形体感的时候,证悟无我就发生了。实际上,不管你修什么方法,仅仅是失去身体的固态感或形体感不是证知无我。这是因为你清晰地经历能知之心并认它为“我”或“自我”。这类似于无色界的梵天众,他们没有形体,但仍然误以为他们的心是“我”或“自我”。所以仅仅是失去固体形态感并不意味着证知无我。只有当你观照身心发生的刹那,见到它们依其自身因缘生起灭去而没有任何主宰,这才是在究竟意义上证悟无我。

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 楼主| 发表于 2017-3-10 10:52:23 | 显示全部楼层
Q41: Venerable Sir, is it true that by realizing impermanence, one is supposed to spontaneously appreciate suffering and egolessness?

问41:尊者,是真的吗,证得了无常,也就自发地领会苦和无我?

Yes, indeed. Whatever is impermanent is regarded to be suffering and, at the same time, egoless. Actually, they are in an ultimate sense the five aggregates constituted of mental and physical phenomena although they have different names.

是,确实如此。 任何无常的,都被认为是苦,同时也是无我。实际上,无常的东西在究竟意义上就是身心现象构成的五蕴,只是叫法不一样。

Q42: Venerable Sir, is it not too soon for one to describe his or her  progress  of  Vipassana  insights within a month or so?

问42:尊者,有人在一个月左右描述他/她的观智进展并不为时过早吗?

No, it is not too soon because the Buddha claimed that his method is excellent enough to help one to become anāgami or arahat even within a week. So, if someone states that it is impossible to bring about enlightenment within a month, no matter how intensively a yogi practices, then he is blemishing the Buddha’s teaching and hindering people from practice.

不,并不为时过早,因为佛陀宣布他的方法足够卓越,甚至可以让人在一周内成就不还果或者阿罗汉果。所以,如果某人说不管一个修行者多么努力都不可能在一个月左右证果,那么他就在玷污佛陀的教法,阻碍人们修行。

Q43: Venerable Sir, what types of difficulties have you encountered in your teaching of Vipassana?

问43:尊者,您教内观曾经遇到了什么样的困难?

In 1939, I started teaching this satipatthana vipassana in my native place, Mahasi monastery, Seikkhun village, Shwebo township. At that time, the abbot from the adjacent monastery was not happy with my teaching. But he dared not condemn it openly in my presence because he knew I was highly learned. So he did it in my absence only. There were also some monks and lay people who supported him. However, I never acted in response but kept on teaching as usual. Whatever Condemnation  they made, nothing could shake or waver me because I was teaching through my own experience. Later, more and more people began to prove my teaching to be true from their own direct experience.

1939年我开始在我的老家雪布镇谢昆村的大鼓寺教导这种四念处内观禅法。那时邻近寺庙的住持对我的教法感到不悦,但他不敢当我在场时公开批评,因为他知道我很有学问,只有我不在的时候他才说。也有一些出家众和在家众支持他。然而,我没有对此作出任何回应,只是照常继续象教禅。他们所作的任何指责都不会动摇我,因为我的教学是基于自己的经验。后来,越来越多的人通过他们自己的亲身体验验证了我的教法。

Later, the monk who had condemned my teaching, unfortunately had an affair with a woman and was disrobed within a few years. He passed away four or  five years later. Again, when I started teaching in Yangon, one of the newspapers kept on condemning my teaching for some time. But I never acted in response. And then, a book entitled “The Ladder To Pure Land” apishly criticized my teaching. Moreover, there was a journal that continually expressed articles condemning my teaching. I did nothing, however, to respond to them considering that the dhamma doctrine was the Buddha’s, not mine. So those who appreciated my teaching would come to me. Otherwise, they went to other teachers. Again, I kept on teaching as usual, found no failures but only success in my spiritual career year after year. I opened this Yangon Meditation Centre with 25 yogis in the year of 1950. Now, in the summer time, there are about one thousand of yogis practicing here in this centre. Even in the winter, when usually fewer yogis practice, there are some two hundred yogis practicing in the centre. Indeed, that indicates no failure but success.

后来没过几年,那位指责我的教法的比库因为和一女人有染而不幸还俗,过了四、五年他就去世了。我在仰光开始教禅,又有一家报纸在一段时间不断指责我的教法。但我从没有回应。并且那时名为《至净土的阶梯》(The Ladder to Pure Land)一书也笨拙地批评我的教法。更有甚者,一家杂志不断发表文章指责我的教法,我没对他们作任何回应,因为我想,法义是佛陀的,不是我自己的,所以那些认可我的教法的人会来我这里,否则他们会跟别人去学。我再度只是一如既往继续教禅,迎来的不是失败,而只是我弘法路上年复一年的成就。仰光禅修中心在1950年开张的时候有25名禅修者,现在,夏天的时候有近千名禅修者在此禅修。即使在冬天,禅修的人会少一些,也有约两百人在此禅修。确实,这不表示失败,而是成功。

Q44: Venerable Sir, how much time should we spend noting at the dining table?

问44:尊者,用餐时要花多少时间观照?

If or when you have your meal alone and can note precisely and accurately, you may have fifty or sixty moments of noting within a single morsel. Thus, it would take you about an hour or so to finish your meal. But when you are eating in a group, it is impossible for you to note in that manner. You should determine to note as much as possible.

如果你单独用餐,可以细致精确地观照,吃一口可能有五、六十刹那标记观照,这样吃完一顿饭你可能需要一个小时。但你和大家一起吃饭就不可能这样观照,你需自己拿主意,尽量多观照。

Q45: Venerable Sir, how long is it likely to take a yogi to reach the certain level of insight called Udaya-bhaya-ñana (the insight into arising and passing away of phenomena)?

问45:尊者,一个禅修者可能需要多长时间才能证得生灭随观智?

Most people, if they work hard, may take a week or so to attain this insight knowledge. However, a few exceptional people, maybe one or two in a hundred, can accomplish it within three or four days. But there are some people who have to take ten or fifteen days to reach this insight because of insufficient effort or weak mental faculty. Also there are some people who cannot reach to even after a month or so because of some deficiency. Anyway, a yogi is normally expected to accomplish this insight within a week or so if he or she works diligently.

如果非常精勤用功,大多数人可能在一周左右证得这一观智。然而,少数例外的人,可能在三、四天证得,这在百人当中有一两个。但有些人必须要十或者十五天才能达到这一观智,因为他们不够努力或者根性弱。也有些人甚至一个月左右都无法证得,因为有些缺陷的缘故。总之,修行者精勤用功通常可以预期在一周左右成就这一观智。

Q46: Venerable Sir, is it necessary to accept nothing but practical experience?

问46:尊者,有必要只接受实际经验吗?

It is not practical for you to accept only practical experience. In other words, there is no reason not to believe in nonempirical reality. Although you cannot see something with your naked eyes, it may be seen through a microscope or telescope. Although you have never been to some parts of the world, it is reasonable for you to believe in what is said of it by those who have been there. Of course, we have to accept the discoveries of astronauts although we have never been in outer space. The law of the Dhamma is very subtle and delicate. The reason one may not experience it is probably because of deficiency in spiritual talent and effort or obstructions like Kamma, Kilesa, Vipaka, Vitikkama and Ariyupavada. Most often, however, insight knowledge is not realized due to a weakness in one’s effort and concentration. So, if you don’t practice as seriously as others do, you cannot expect to realize something special as the others do.

只接受实际经验并不实际。换句话说,没有道理不相信非自己经验的东西的真实性。尽管有些东西你不能用肉眼看见,但可能用显微镜或望远镜看见。尽管世上有些地方你没有去过,但相信去过的人的描述也是合理的。显然,尽管我们没去过外太空我们必须接受宇航员的发现。法的规律是非常甚深微妙,没有亲历可能是因为缺乏心智的潜能和努力,或者是业障、烦恼障、异熟障、违犯障和侮辱圣者障等。然而最常见的是因为精进和定力弱导致没有证得观智。所以,你如果没有象他人一样严肃用功,你就不能期望象他人一样证得某些特别的东西。

Q47: Venerable Sir, do some people become enlightened while merely listening to a Dhamma talk?

问47:尊者,有人仅仅听佛法开示就证果吗?

No, it was not by listening to the talk that some were enlightened. In order to attain magga phala enlightenments, awareness of body, feeling, mind or general phenomena is essential.

不,不是听开示证果。要证得道果,觉知身、受、心、法是必须的。

Q48: Why could Jhana-achievers not discover mind and body to be impermanent, etc.,  despite their attainment of Jhana?

问48:为什么禅那成就者尽管证得了禅那却不能发现身心的无常等等?

Because they do not observe mental and physical phenomena, which really prevail every moment they go, stand, sit, see, hear and so on, they cannot discover mind and body to be impermanent, etc.

因为他们没有观察他们行住坐卧看听等每一刹那真实显现的身心现象,所以他们不能发现身心的无常。

Q49: Venerable Sir, is it true that Magga, Phala cannot be realized in this day and age, however hard we work?

问49:尊者,真的吗,现在这个年代无论怎样勤奋用功都不能证得道果?

Those who have such opinion will fail to practice for sure, let alone the attainment of Magga and Phala. That view is simply an obstruction to the holy path.

持这种观点的人将 一定不会去禅修,更不要说证得道果。这种观点只是圣道的障碍。

Q50: Venerable Sir, is it possible for us to attain Magga, Phala in these days?

问50:尊者,这个年代可能证得道果吗?

Why not? Suppose you have a formula for a drug, then you can make medicine and take it to get cure of your disease. In the same way, the teaching of the Buddha, like a formula, is present and you also have spiritual aptitude, so all you need to do is put it into practice. You will surely attain Magga and Phala. Keep it in your mind. Moreover, no Pali canons say it is impossible to be enlightened nowadays. In fact, they even say that one can become an Arahat with Triple Occult (Te-vijja) in these days. Even the commentary on Vinaya says, to  a minimum extent, that one can become Anagami, the third noble one. The best reference to cite here is: “Ime ca subhadda bhikkhu samma vihareyyum, asunno loko arahantehi assa.” “Oh Subhadda,” said the Buddha, “as long as there are monks who practice properly, this world will never be empty of arahats.” We can find, in these days too, those who practice in a proper way under good guidance. So I am sure, the world is not empty, even now, of noble persons including arahats.

为什么不能?假如你有配一种药的药方,那么你可以配出这种药并治愈你的疾病。同理,佛陀的教法就如药方是现成的,你又有菠萝蜜,所以你需要做的就是将之付诸实践,毫无疑问你将证得道果,请记在心里。再者,没有巴利经典说今天不能证得道果。事实上,经典甚至说这个年代人们可以证得三明阿罗汉。甚至律藏的注释书说,最低程度,一个人也可以成为不还圣者,也就是三果圣人。在这里可引用的最好的参考资料是“Ime ca subhadda bhikkhu samma vihareyyum, asunno loko  arahantehi  assa.” (“喔,苏拔陀”,佛陀说,“只要还有比库正确地禅修,这个世界就绝不会没有阿罗汉。”) 在这个年代我们还能找到有好的指导按正确方法禅修的人。所以我确信,即使当今世界也不会没有圣者,包括阿罗汉。

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 楼主| 发表于 2017-3-10 10:54:05 | 显示全部楼层
“Q51: Venerable Sir, what do we have to do to realize impermanence of mind and body?

问51:尊者,必须修什么才能证知身心的无常?

If you watch mind and body moment to moment, you are bound to experience true characteristics of phenomena and to see them arise and then vanish immediately.

如果你刹那刹那地观照身心,你一定会体验各种现象的真实特性,并见它们即生即灭。

Q52: Venerable Sir, what is the maximum amount of “Puñña” or merit that can be accumulated by practicing Vipassana meditation?

问52:尊者,修内观禅最大程度能积累多少功德(Puñña)?

One moment of noting is available in each second. Thus, 60 moments in a minute, 3600 in an hour and 72,000 a day except for the four hours for sleeping. This is a huge pile of merit!

每一秒可有一片刻观照,一分钟就有60次,一小时3600次,一天除去睡眠4小时共72000次。这是非常大量的功德积聚。

Q53: Venerable Sir, how long does it take a yogi to accomplish his or her progress of Vipassana insights?

问53:禅修者需要多长时间才能成就各阶内观智?

It depends. Only a few people can describe their accomplishment of insight knowledge within a week or so, while most people usually mention their complete set of insight knowledge after one and a half months, or two. There are, however, some people who have to take three or four months to accomplish it. If, however, one practices seriously as instructed, he or she is likely to describe his or her achievement within a month or so. That’s why a yogi is typically encouraged here to practice for at least a month.

这要看情况。只有少数几个人能在一周左右讲述他们成就观智,而大多人通常在一个半月或两个月讲述所有阶次的观智,然而有些人要三、四个月才能完成。不过,只要你能严格按照老师的教导用功,可能会在一个月左右描述你得到成就。这是为什么我们通常鼓励禅修者在此至少修一个月。

Q54: Venerable Sir, can you describe what one’s experience of magga-phala  enlightenment is like?
问54:尊者,你能描述一个人证得道果的经验是什么样吗?

One’s mental state changes remarkably and abruptly when he or she realizes Magga, Phala enlightenment. He or she may feel as if he or she were newly reborn. His or her faith and confidence distinctly flourish resulting in strong rapture, ecstasy and great happiness. Sometimes, these mental states prevail so much that he or she cannot penetrate into objects like before even though he or she focuses attention on them. Hours or days later, however, such mental states tend to be mild and he or she can do well again in the practice. For some people, they may feel relaxed or apparently unwilling to practice or seemingly satisfied with what they have just achieved probably because they might not intend to achieve higher.

当一个人证得道果的时候,他/她的心理状态发生显著或截然不一样的变化。他/她可能感到如获新生。他/她的信心因强烈的喜、乐、轻安而明显地处于鼎盛。有时这些状态如此强烈以至于即使他/她集中注意力也不能象以前那样透视所缘。然而,数小时或数天后这些状态变得和缓他/她又能够很好禅修了。有些人可能感到放松或者明显的不愿意用功或者似乎满足于刚获得的成就,可能是因为他们没有意愿成就更高阶的果位。

Q55: Venerable Sir, can you describe someone who, you believe, experienced Nibbāna?

问55:尊者,您可以描述您认为体证了涅槃的人吗?

Yes, I can. Among those who first practiced under my guidance, my cousin called U Phochon was impressive. When he reached the stage of bhanga-ñāna (the fifth level of  Vipassana  insight), he started to find trees or people fluxing. He thought something was wrong with his view because he had learned from a teacher that things like a tree, log, post, stone, human body, etc., last for a due period, while physical phenomena caused by one’s kamma or mind passed away immediately after they arose. On the contrary, he saw, at that time, things flux. So he came and asked me what was wrong with his view. I encouraged him saying that nothing was wrong with his view but it was bhanga-ñāna (the fifth level of  Vipassana  insight), which helped him to see things passing away immediately. After a few days, he clearly described his experience of Nibbāna, the cessation of mind and body.

是的,在这些人中,我的堂兄乌•珀充是第一个在我指导下修行的人,给我的印象深刻。当他达到坏灭随观智(第五观智)时,他开始发现树木或人都在流变,他想他的所见可能出了问题,因为他曾经从一个老师那里了解到,如树木、圆木、电杆、石头、人体等东西都会持续存在一定时期,而由业或心引生的现象生起即灭。相反,他那时看到一切东西都在流变。于是他来问我他的所见出了什么问题。我鼓励他说他的所见没有任何问题,这是坏灭随观智(第五观智),此智让他看到事物立即灭去。几天之后,他清楚地描述体证涅槃—名色止息的经历。

Q56: Venerable Sir, what are the descriptions of Nibbāna made by those who, you believe, have attained it?

问56:尊者,那些您相信证得涅槃的人如何描述涅槃的?

Some descriptions of Nibbāna made by those who, I believed, realized it are as follows:
• I found objects and noting mind to cease abruptly.
• I discovered that objects and noting mind were cut off like a creeper chopped down.
• I saw objects and noting mind fall down immediately like a heavy burden unloaded.
• I perceived objects and noting mind drop down as if I lost my hold on them.
• I felt as if I escaped from objects and noting mind.
• I found out that objects and noting mind ceased abruptly like a candle light blown out.
• I felt as if I got out of the objects and noting mind, like coming into the light out of the darkness.
• I felt that I escaped the objects and noting mind, as if I got into clarity from obscurity.
• I found both objects and noting mind submerged as if they were to sink into the water.
• I discovered that both objects and noting mind stopped suddenly like a sprinter who was pushed back from the front.
• I found both objects and noting mind disappeared suddenly.

那些我相信证得涅槃的人对涅槃的一些描述如下:
l 我发现观照的目标和观照的心突然止息。
l 我发现观照的目标和观照的心就像爬藤被斩断一样一下截断。
l 我见观照的目标和观照的心立即落下,就像放下重担。
l 我觉知观照的目标和观照的心脱落,就像我没抓牢它们。
l 我感到就像我从观照的目标和观照的心逃逸。
l 我发现观照的目标和观照的心突然止息就像烛火被吹灭。
l 我感到就像从观照的目标和观照的心脱离,就如从黑暗进入光明。
l 我感到从观照的目标和观照的心逃离,就像从晦暗进入明亮。
l 我发现观照的目标和观照的心二者沉没,就像它们沉入水中。
l 我发现观照的目标和观照的心二者突然停止,就像冲刺的运动员被从正面推回。
l 我发现观照的目标和观照的心二者突然消失。

Q57: Venerable Sir, by allowing a yogi to listen to the talk on the progress of insights, are you confirming that he or she is a Sotapanna ( who has reached the first stage of enlightenment)?

问57:允许禅修者去听观智次第的开示,是您印证他/她是初果了吗?

No, not at all. We never make judgments of one’s spiritual status. When we are sure, however, that a yogi is good enough at practice, we allow him or her to listen to the talk given by one of our meditation teachers, expounding on how the insight knowledge advances up to the enlightenment of magga and phala. The purpose is to help a yogi to be able to decide his or her spiritual level by checking his or her own experience with the talk given. Moreover, this will offer him or her a chance to enjoy his or her achievement and give encouragement to work harder for further development. It is not for us to decide what level of enlightenment he or she has attained. So, it is simply a misunderstanding that we confirm that a yogi is Sotapanna by allowing him or her to listen to that talk.

不,根本不是。我们从不判断一个人的心的状态。然而,当我们确信禅修者修得足够好,我们会让他/她去听我们禅师讲解观智如何进阶到证悟道果的开示,其目的是使禅修者能够通过对比自己的经验和开示判断自己的水平。再者,这会给他/她机会对其成就生起喜悦并激发他/她更加努力以获得更多进展。不是我们去决定禅修者证了几果。所以,以为让禅修者去听那样的开示就是我们印证他/她证了初果,这纯粹是误解。

Q58: Venerable Sir, it is, some say, unreasonable that a meditation teacher is unable to confirm that so and so yogi among his students becomes Sotāpanna. Is that true?

问58:尊者,有些人说,禅师不能印证他的学生中某某某是初果是不合理的,真是这样吗?

Yes, it may be unreasonable from their point of view, but it is very appropriate to Sāsana tradition that a meditation teacher is not able to confirm that so and so person among his yogis becomes Sotāpanna. The Buddha is the only one in this position to confirm someone’s enlightenment such as sotāpanna, sakadāgāmi, anāgami or arahat.  Even Venerable Sāriputra never did it that way. So we never do this way, either. This is the appropriate way in the Sāsana tradition.

确实从他们的观点看是不合理,但是禅师不印证他的学生中某某某是初果却非常符合佛教的传统。佛陀是唯一有资格印证他人证果如初果、二果、三果、四果的人,即使舍利弗尊者也没有这样做过。所以也我们从不这样做。这是符合佛教传统的。

Q59: Venerable Sir, how many people do you believe to be enlightened under your guidance?
问59:尊者,您认为有多少人在您的指导下证果?

I believe there are thousands of people who have reached, within a week, the insight knowledge distinguishing between mind and body from one’s own experience by practicing strictly as instructed and arousing strong concentration. And also, there are thousands of those who experience mind and body interacting and constantly changing; i.e., cause and effect, and impermanence, suffering and egolessness of the phenomena. And also, there are thousands of people who are believed to accomplish Magga, Phala enlightenment after they have developed mature insight knowledge by observing mind and body moment to moment.

我认为,成千的人在一周内达到名色分辨智,他们严格按照指导用功并生起了强的定力,亲自体验了这一观智。也有成千的人体证了身心相互作用和不停的变化,即因果和诸法的无常、苦、无我。也有成千的人被认为通过刹那刹那地观照名色培育了成熟的观智,成就了道果的证悟。

Q60: Venerable Sir, what is a yogi expected to be aware of, when he or she is walking, noting “right foot, left foot,” or “lifting, pushing, and dropping?”

问60:尊者,禅修者在行禅时观照“左步、右步”或“提起、推前、放下”时应该观照什么?

The sensation in the foot or body of a yogi is what he or she is to be aware of. In technical terms, vayo-dhatu, the air-element characterized by stiffness, pressure,  motion or  vibration;  tejo-dhatu, the fire-element characterized by temperature:  cold,  warm  or hot;  pathavi- dhatu, the earth-element characterized by  hardness,   softness or  smoothness.  But, especially vayo-dhatu is prominent to  observe  most of the time.
禅修者脚部或身体的感觉是他/她应该觉知的。用专门术语来讲,就是:风元素,其特征为紧绷、 挤压、运动或振动;火元素,其特征为温度的冷、暖、热;地元素,其特征为坚、软、柔滑。但风元素最为显著,是大多数时候的观照对象。

From “An Interview with Mahasi Sayadaw”
Prepared by Tha-ma-nay-kyaw, November 17, 2001
Translated by Hla Myint Kyaw, January 21, 2002

原文出自《采访马哈希尊者》
由达玛奈觉整理,2011年11月17日
缅译英 拉明觉,2002年1月21日
英译中 汤华俊 2014年1月12日 (英文版由马哈希内观群的李伟德贤友提供并请求翻译)
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